Internal ID: 0062 [see the .xml file]
Identifier: NLS Acc. 13509

A date of 1818 has been assigned to this document due to the author's reference to the death of Lady Anne Hope Johnstone, which occurred in that year.

Editors: Edited with an Introduction by Alex Deans

Aug. 31. Maria and I started from E.C. at 1/2 past 7 this morning & reached called ^Carlisle [sic] a little before 9 when I called on Mr Normans & settled with him about the school conveyance. At Gretna stopped to see the Inn where runaways are married; an opposition blacksmith has lately started up there. Pretty banks of the Kirtle; looking back we had a fine view of Solway frith & the Cumberland
mountains. The cottages are in general built of mud, but new ones are rising here and there built of stone and slated. Harvest a good deal got in — chiefly barley & oats. No wheat to be seen. Passed close to Burnswark and shortly after reached Ecclefechan. Funeral just over — Small two wheeled hearse with small tow feathers at the corners.

Passed a sort of Paddingtonian Gothic chateau with three pasteboard clumps in part

of it and a Strait channel cut In a mountain Stream running on one side. Pretty situation of Castle Milk — neat village of Lockerby with two Kirks Stairs on the outside of one of them leading up to the Gallery. We were detained some time for horses & got off at 3. Passed old burying place by the side of a river without church annexed. Spaces inclosed by walls for family sepulchres with their arms over the entrance. Hay made into large cocks
Mountains approach nearer. Many fir plantations. Pretty approach to Moffat. A vale inclosed by mountains tall spire of the church rising from trees. Plaid caps begin to appear as do bare legged and bare footed women — white haired children — rustics wrapped up in coarse plaids. Neat houses. Curious chimneys bound round with twisted straw. We arrived at Moffat too late to set forward on the next long
stage the same evening; but had just time to walk up a mile & half through a valley to the mineral well kept by an old woman. The water tastes much of Sulphur. It flows from rocks a pint in a minute. By it's dike is a ravine thro' which flows a rapid mountain stream. The wells belonged to Ly. Hope who is just dead and her remains are expected here on their way to Johnstone between here & Lockerby.
She was attending her daughter-in-laws accouchement in Edinburgh. We had arrived at Moffat at 6, and got back from our walk at 1/2 past 8 — Bed at 10. –––––

Sep. 1. Left Moffat at 1/4 past 6. Rain. Steep ascent & descent to Pretty wooded valley — first view of the ClydeElvan Foot Breakfast. Sheep in great numbers following their leader over the hills. Fine green

downs. Douglas Mill. Turned off to the right towards LanarkTinto cloud capped. Crossed the Clyde by Hyndford bridge, a very handsome one built by the family of that name who have a seat a few miles on the right. Before reaching Lanark we walked down to the lodge of the late Ly. Ross's grounds, and Sent on the carriage to the town, Tho' the day was rainy we met a good deal
of Company. Corra & Boninton were very fine. In our way from thence we stopped at the manufactories and were shown over them by Mr.Gleck. They have a building where they manufacture their machinery for spinning &c. We saw their [...] instruments made of earth. There are four cotton mills and we saw all the process they are kept remarkably neat. The population is about 2400. The people buy their food
at a large depot much cheaper & better than they could any where else. They subscribe 1d. out of every ^five shillings they earn for the support of the sick & old. A large house is now building where those who like it may dine together in public — it will be a great saving to them of pies in the summer. The school is excellent and contains a number of rooms. One of them is for very small children
who are thus taken off their parents hands for some hours every day and placed under the care of a person — but are not taught anything. The children in the School learn besides reading & writing — dancing piping and the manual exercise. They begin at 7 — breakfast — come again at 10 — dine come again at 3 and stay till five. There are about 700 here
at present and the boys and girls are taught together. In the same building is a chapel where service is performed for the children every Sunday; in week days it is used as a Schoolroom The Contrivances In their slates which slip down in grooves at the back of the desks and of the inkstands wh. have little covers to keep out the dust are very neat. The children who are
imployed in manufactures during the day and are in want of education taught in the evening and are allowed to sit down. Having finished our inspection of all the buildings we went down to see the large water wheels which turn all the works and are of immense size. We then proceeded up the hill by a steep path and met an old rustic who spoke
much in praise of Mr Owen, he has been ^here 19 years, and is one of the partners of the works and the principal manager. The other three partners do not reside here. A large garden is Cultivated by them & vegetables from it sold at a low price to the manufacturers.i

Sep. 2. We got up at 1/2 past 5 this morning but the people were so lazy that we could find neither guide waiter or ostler stirring. In about 1/2 an hour we procured the Cicerone and walking thro' the town turned off by a path to the right and came down to MLockhart's house opposite which there is a very distinct echo. Then walking up the Hill on
the opposite side we came to the Crags. Here there is a pretty Moss seat but the walk along the precipice is a mere footpath. We saw Wallace's cave a small cleft in the rock opposite not more than 20 feet above the river. Near where the Mouse joins the Clyde are two bridges; one of them is very picturesque & has a large semicircular arch and is called Roman; but is now disused as a
flatter stronger and broader one has been built to supply it's place. Soon after we crossed the Clyde and stopped at Stonebyres.

I scrambled down to the rocks in the bed of the river from whence is the best view. The vale of the Clyde beyond Stonebyres grows very beautiful, there is a great deal of wood and a number

of gentlemen's seats. Col [...] is rebuilding his house which has been consumed by fire, in the Gothic style. We arrived about 10 at Hamilton, breakfasted and inspected the palace; there is a very fine Coregio of Christ Scourged; portrait of the handsome Duke of Hamilton in regimentals, and ^of his mother a most beautiful
woman. Leaving it we crossed the Clyde by Bothwell Bridge famous for the battle with the Convenanters and then stopped at Bothwell Castle which is a most lovely place; you see nothing of it's beauty from the high road. The house is very large built of red stone and commands an extensive view towards
Glasgow — one end looks down upon the Clyde. We walked all over the grounds & spent some time in exploring the ruins. On leaving this place the vale of the Clyde continues very rich and the spires of Glasgow begin to appear in the distance — but as you approach the city the country is spoilt by the smoke and manufactories.
We arrived at Glasgow about 4 and put up at the Black Bull. Walked up the Trongate and saw some of the principal features of the town. In evening went to a meeting house to hear Wardlaw, but were too late as the service had begun and the doors were shut. —

Sep. 3. Went down to the Green and saw the Courthouse and Bridges — thence went up to the Cathedral which is divided into two churches; the fine Gothic architecture is spoilt by pews and galleries — The Church below is now disused. Near to the Cathedral is a new
Hospital for the recovery of Typhus fevers. We then descended to the College but did not go over the Museum. We saw the process of Singeing and also a carpet manufactory. Met Mr & MrsBaker and went with them to see a
tambour manufactory where the work is done by machinery, but we could not get admittance. Having been to the Bankers and engaged a pair of horses and driver from the Black Bull for our Highland tour at the rate of £1..19..0 a day we got some dinner and started at 5.

Met reapers coming home from their work. Fine view of the Campsie and Kilpatrick hills; just reached Dalnottar hill in time to see the view before it gone dark. Wound along the Clyde to Dumbarton which we reached about 8, and found the Inn dirty and swarming with bugs. —

Sep. 4. The first Bulletin this morning was that it was raining. During breakfast the waiter told us that the Steam boat would set off from the foot of Loch Lomond on a tour round the lake at 10 o clock; as the weather looked better we therefore preferred this novelty to waiting till we had visited the castle and started immediately after breakfast. The banks of the Leven are very picturesque and have a flourishing appearance; cornfields (the corn generally cut) with fine trees fringing the river, neat cottages, and hills rising at a little distance from the
scenery. Smollet's monument remains in it's place, but no pains seem to be taken to keep it in repair, and the marble tablet which contains the inscription and is inlaid in the Pedestal is broken in half and one piece seems ready to tumble out. We passed a number of shearers going to their work the rain having ceased. The women were a good specimen of Scotch beauty; they walked very upright, and their hair was neatly braided behind without any cap. Before we had any glimpse of the Loch we turned
down sharp to the right and found ourselves on the banks of the Leven a little below the spot where it flows out of the Loch. The steamboat was just going off and the horn blowing for a signal. A punt carried us to it and we seated ourselves on a bench near the stern and soon put off. At this moment a volume of thick smoke issued from the chimney and the steam issuing with great force from the pipe covered half the deck with a shower; but this soon ceased and we went quietly at the rate
of seven miles an hour. This velocity is not quite agreable to the Sketcher, as the same view continues for so short a time, and no halt is made except for a minute or two at a very few places to take up passengers. But then you have the advantage of visiting every part of the lake and forming an excellent idea of it which in a common boat with rowers it would be impossible to accomplish in a day. It has been established three months and answers very well. We had
about 20 passengers who were more select than we expected to find. We first passed the D. of Montrose's deer park Inch Murin where are about 200 head of deer; next Crainch, Taminch, and Inch Callich, the latter is very high, abrupt rocky and woody; these four are in a strait line and stretch across the lake in it's greatest breadth. On doubling the extreme point of Inch Callich we proceeded strait up the lake and passed Inch fad, low and without wood & with corn upon it.

Inch Tavanach on our right I regretted to see had been spoiled of it's beautiful wood. All these Islands we saw to great advantage but Ben lomond's head continued veiled in clouds and most of the mountains followed it's example. We stopped at Luss and took up some more passengers and small rain soon came on but not bad enough to drive us from deck. Passing close to the base of Ben lomond we stopped at Row Ardennan and took up some youths who
just come down from an unsuccessful expedition to the top of the mountain.

Passed Rob Roy's rocks not large or striking objects and came to a small cottage with a mountain torrent rolling down in a fine cascade close to it: on the hill above is Inversnaid. We then went on about a mile further to a bold rocky point which is the farthest place the boat goes to it and here about 40 yards from the shore is Rob Roy's Cave or Cove. The path up to it is very

steep and bad and I think too bad for a lady to attempt, but Maria with a good deal of scrambling and difficulty contrived to reach the mouth of it. There is not much to be seen it is very small and the form very rude being caused by great stones which have fallen down from the heights above and in such ^a way as to form a cavity beneath them. Here we turned back and heavy showers coming on we were not sorry to land at Tarbet at three, and the boat
proceeded in it's course down to the foot of the Loch which it would reach at 6. The distance up to the Cave they call 23 miles. The inn is small and at first we thought indifferent but the attentive and officious innkeeper conducted us to another house at a little distance which is very clean and comfortable. Maria and I walked a couple of miles on the Tyndrum road, and returned to Dinner at 7. The evening turned out fine and we saw ^the top of Ben Lomond. Bed at 10.

5th. We had given orders last night to have a boat and guide read at 1/2 past 6. to proceed on an expedition to Loch Katrine, but so lazy were the innkeeper and his train that it was passed that time before we could obtain breakfast, and 20 minutes to 8. before we were seated in the boat where we were immediately joined by two gentlemen who were afterwards found to be Coll. Austen and Mr Cazalet. The day promised to be very fine, we reached the cottage and waterfall where we had touched in the Steam boat the
preceding day, at a little after eight and began to climb the hill; and after ascending for about ten minutes we dipped down a little and lost sight of the lake but not of the fine mountains Benvein and Beneim which are seen from Loch Katrine and are a principal feature in the views on that lake though they rise from the opposite bank of Loch Lomond. We now had to ascend another but less steep hill upon which are the remains of a fort (nothing more however than a fortified
house, without any battery or works, which was originally placed there by Government as a check upon the lawless clan of the Macgregors of which Rob Roy was so well known an individual. A guard was kept there till about 17 years ago and the house is now falling to ruins. One of our Guides told us a marvellous story of one of the Macgregor's having once upon a time taken the fort by his own will
and courage without assistance from any body. He appeared at night before the outer centinel at whose heart he suddenly pointed a dirk threatening to stab him instantly if he did not lay down his arms, which he obliged him to do bound him hand and foot obtained from him the key of the garrison which he entered and took the whole armoury away with him and all the weapons he could find about the soldiers who it appears
remained fast asleep all this time. Having performed this feat he appeared before the fort next morning ^with a few of his followers and demanded ^of them to give up the garrison, threatening to massacre them all if they refused to comply, and which to complete the story they of course acceded to. To corroborate this statement the narator [sic] said he had known the agent of all this when very old and had the story
from him, but he is unfortunately not living still (I should rather say fortunately) to be catechised by the hundreds and thousands who frequent Loch Katrine and Loch Lomond. Our talk on this and other local subjects occupied us as we walked thro' the valley between the two lakes, wh. only boasts a single house all the way and has no very striking features. The road is tolerably level, and a very fair mountain horse road.

Soon after we had got half way we came to a small piece of water called Loch Arkil, and at the very end of this came in sight of Loch Katrine blue2 but with out any other accompaniments than mountains wood being almost entirely excluded from the picture. Benan is seen from hence with the top of Benvenue to the right of it and Benledi in the distance. After waiting half an hour a boat was seen shooting
across the lake to us, not piloted by an Ellen,3 but by an old weather beaten Highlander, accompanied by a guide we had sent on before to secure it, as it is the only boat to be met with at this end of the lake. We embarked about 11 and had a very pleasant sail to the other end of the lake; no houses are to be seen but a small white one beautifully situated and belonging to a Graham, his property was formerly intermixed
with the Duke of Montrose's and he gave the Duke a good deal of trouble by interfering with his shooting and other things, till at the last his Grace was glad to make a bargain with him by which the Statesman gained a much better property and a much prettier situation for his house; the other mansion is now more humble being without a chimney and the owner a shepherd fills it with a family of 15 Children who we saw
working in a field near the flight of steps. Ben Lomond looks well from hence and a stone at the top looks like a man who has just ascended it. On reaching the last bend of the lake Benvenue burst upon us but not in all it's former glory on account of some of the wood having been cut down and the whole that remains being doomed to the same fate by the Duke's order who has sold it for the paltry sum of £200; the elegant birches fit for
little but to ornament the sides of their native mountains have been stripped of their bark (which by the by they say is worth half us much as oak)4 look very sickly and this autumn will be cut down for posts and rails: observed on the shore a little to the left of Roderick's Island a bold rock on which was formerly planted a maison de plaisance but was blown away one night.5 All this side belongs to Mr D. Burrell
who obtained it by marrying the heiress of the Perth family. We walked thro' the Trossachs to Stewart's at the head of Loch Achray and partook of some apartment in his dirty quarters. Much of the wood here too is cut down but it is allowed to grow for 21 yrs [years] a few large ones are left always to grow into fine trees. They say Mr Burrell if he wished could not build an Inn here as Stewart has a lease of all the ground hereabouts for some yrs. [years] to come
and he is very glad to pocket money from visitors without paying a licence though he is at perpetual war with the excisemen about it. Maria and I wished to ride over to Aberfoil and return by Loch Ard to Rowardennan but we found it would be 21 miles and besides this could hire no ponies; we therefore were obliged to give it up and returned with our companions thro' the Trossachs and reembarked at 4. There was
more wind then incoming and it came down from the mountain in eddies and sometimes brought down the side of our boat close to the water, but we had an experienced pilot who brought us safe to shore in an hour and a half. Rain came on and increased in violence as we reached Loch Lomond when it was dark. Two of the party joined the boatman in pulling and we with difficulty reached the opposite
banks where we landed and walked thro' a little wood into the Tyndrum road. Pursuing this for two miles (the same walk we had taken the evening before) we reached Tarbett a little before ten, and after changing our clothes sat down to a good supper.


6th. The Drenching of last night made us rather late at breakfast this morning when we found it still raining. The landlady and her children and several other people in their Sunday clothes (which were as good and handsome as any in England) trotting off to church with their umbrellas shamed us a little as we had decided not to go, but I thought it would not do to let Maria have the benefit of another cold bath. At 12 we set off and
drove thro the narrow and gloomy vale to Arroquhar. The road for these two miles is as bad as possible and an exception to the usual good roads of the Highlands. The beauty of the Inn has been a little impaired by some of the trees in front of it having been cut down, but the Cobler remains in status quo hard at his work. Passing on to the head of the Loch, the fishermen's nets spread on large upright sevens to dry had a picturesque effect. The valley of Glencroe looked
as wild as ever but the wind was not high enough to annoy us in ascending to Rest and be thankful. We reached Cairndow at 4 oclock and found the Inn very full from a large party having just arrived from Inverary which place they had come to in the steam boat from Glasgow. These steamboats bring a good deal of company on Sundays but on the whole diminish the profits of the Innkeepers on this road the Glasgow cits enjoying
a sea voyage and the sight of the Islands of Arran and Bute. Col. Callander the proprietor of Ardkinglas has lately built a very neat Kirk close to the Inn which has cost him £1000. The Kirk is octagonal and it has a very handsome Gothic tower perhaps too good for the other part of the building. He is rather embarrassed in his affairs and lives near Stirling till an incumbrance on the estate is paid off. The loch looked very fine
as the clouds cleared off at sunset. William and Jane came up in the evening and we had the church prayers.

7th. We started soon after six without rain; saw some herons and Sea Gulls at the head of the lake, began to hear gaelic spoken; sketched Dundanan castle and wound round the beautiful bay of Inverary to the town where we got some letters and breakfasted. We then visited the Duke's house where some repairs are going on; it was built by

Archibald son to the great John, his son the late Duke6 removed the town to it's present situation; and the whole thing being made perfect the reigning Duke deserts it and scarcely ever comes to enjoy it's beauties. He is however now expected with his Duchess to stay a few weeks. There is here a portait of the handsome Duke of Hamilton a relation of the family's by marriage, and of the beautiful Lady Charlotte Campbell by
which was a good deal damaged by the fire at Roseneath. Having inspected the house which was shown us by a very civil woman with the Cumberland accent we wound round the base of Dunicoich and had the beautiful view of the bay and town. You cannot now go the regular footpath from the Inn to the Castle which is shut up; and you are obliged to enter the path by the road thro' a pine avenue; we perceived a large stone sticking up in
the lawn which was probably a monument to some chief. A fine avenue extends from the town to the South west terminating in something worth seeing but we had not time to explore it. Leaving Inverary we entered the Duke's park drove by his stables and farm buildings and ascended thro the vale of Aray with fine woods on each side. After mounting two miles we stopped to see a beautiful fall of the river with a very rustic bridge thrown
across. Soon after we emerged from the woods and entered a very barren tract with rugged mountains on each side constantly ascending and the river still roaring by our side; when we had almost traced it to it's source and reached the summit of the mountain we had a magnificent view down upon Loch Awe and it's Islands; Ben Cruachan rearing it's tremendous form on the opposite side

Descending a steep road to Clady that village ^with it's trees made a fine foreground, two islands7 in the lake had a striking appearance, one rocky and covered with deep green wood and enveloped in shade, another of a fine undulating outline covered with grass and a yellow light playing upon it, behind the branch of the lake which goes North towards Bunawe and has gloomy mountains on each side of it had a singular appearance. From Clady we had a fine drive to Dalmally, black mountains of fine outline opening in front;
we passed over a dreary moor with a number of miserable cottages, and the inhabitants now assuming the highland costume made the scene wild & romantic. We descended to Dalmally after Suppr where we found tolerable accommodation; and walked before supper to Glenorchy Kirk by moonlight, the Urchay rolling rapidly along, the corn in the meadows cut & in sheaves and the dark mountains towering behind just as I had seen ^place three years before.

7th. We set of at 7, and passing Glenorchy church and crossing the river we drove down to the head of the Loch, and perceived on an island at this extremity the romantic castle of Kilchurn; skirted around the base of Cruachan; road hilly and thro' young wood but always close to it and overhanging the Loch; we passed the Northern branch of the lake where the scenery becomes closer and the mountains opposite low and abrupt, it narrows gradually and then the current increases and it
changes into a river which runs on impetuously of a beautiful blue colour and foams like the sea. We arrived at Tynuilt a single house to a late breakfast; and then walked up a hill infront where a large tall natural pillar of grey granite has been placed in memory of Lord Nelson by the workers in the iron*ii furnaces at Bunawe just below; the iron is bought from Lancashire the inducement is the plentifulness of charcoal in this neighbourhood.

Below is Loch Etive a sea loch, which insinuates itself in a chain of mountains terminating in Ben Starive a most picturesque mountain where Cairngouram stones are found. Proceeding onwards we went thro' a hilly but more open country with a good deal of young wood; rudely made birch gates here and there to keep in cattle; at length we wound down to the margin of the lake and caught a view of Dunstaffnage Castle and
beyond of the picturesque mountains of Mull; at Connell Ferry the lake is very narrow and rapid and soon after widens into Loch Linnhe; here the mountain views are extensive in every way, but looking Backwards Ben Cruachan beats them all. We here turned off from the Loch and went over a hilly tract of 5 miles to Oban where the land is strangely thrown about in varyed masses of rock without any picturesque outline. Oban is a neat white village;
lining the shore of a little bay, with a castle at one extremity bold crags at the other and the island of Kerrera almost closing it up in front. We had a charming evening walk in the environs. Herring boats coming in immensely loaded. There are a number of small sailing boats kept here and a larger vessel a cutter is kept by some people connected with the Custom house; hearing some people had hired it we asked to join them which they agreed to. The Inn is very bad

8th A Delightful morning but we found our intended companions had taken fright and given up their voyage, we therefore took the cutter to ourselves. At [...] we rowed out in a boat to it,*iii and had to take a good many tacks before we could get out of the harbour. The Island of Kerrera protects it a good deal from the tempests of Loch Linnhe but it is still very rough in winter. Passing under the castle we observed the Dogstone a large upright rock to which Bruce used to tie his hounds. The greatest part of the Castle was pulled down for it's limestone about 30 yrs. [years] ago. On emerging from the harbour we had a fine view up Loch Linnhe
and at some distance on the right is the plain of Appin overshadowed by mountains where Beregonium the ancient Capital of Scotland or at least of the Western Highlands is said to have stood.10 We soon approached the Island of Lismore which is long ^low and narrow and stretches lengthways up the Loch dividing it nearly equally. It is excessively fertile and has patches of corn all over it but the principal part is pasture. A Catholic Bishop who resided here for many years is just dead; there is also ^a seminary for young Catholics in which 400 are educated. Crossing the loch we entered the sound of Mull with
that Island on the left hand and on the right the Morvern Hills. Close to the entrance of the Sound is Dewart Castle where Joanna Baillie has laid the scene of her legendary tale founded in events which occurred there. A little further on the opposite side is the Castle of Ardtornish celebrated by Scott in His Lord of the Isles. The Hills on each side are bleak without any wood and very few habitations. The wind came down in hidden strong eddies as we passed any opening in them. Passed several low rocky Islands completely covered with Seagulls who feast on the herrings. We reached Aross
at 2, where the waves were rippling up it's smooth beach. Two or three old walls with a few loopholes in them called a castle stand on a hill near the shore around which are the few houses which compose the village. Winding around it's base we came to the Inn in front of which an impetuous stream rushes along and empties itself into the Sound. The Inn has only one floor but has ^a shop adjoining which belongs to the landlord who ingrosses all the custom of this part of the Island. We were surprised to find here 3 or 4 fine ladies dressed in white with their hair done up without caps; it appeared this was not the every day dress of these damsels
who were come over from a neighbouring village on a visit to the Landlady. We got mounted in about an hour's time, I on a stout grey poney, and Maria on a little Shetland; our saddles and bridles were as bad as possible; one of the natives walked by our side and carried some of our baggage. Having ascended a long hill we had an extensive view from the top down to the other side of the Island with LochnaKeal and the Benmore range of mountains on the opposite side of it, with Knock at their base. We descended to a cottage where we waited till the return of a messenger I had sent with
Mr Smith's letter to Col. Campbell who ^returned an answer giving us a kind invitation to his house. We now trotted along the banks of the Loch to Knock which we reached at Sunset and were hospitably revived by the Col. and his three sisters. He has seen a good deal of service in the East Indies and returned a few years ago to this his native spot and has made a very comfortable house. It stands at the base of Benmore the highest mountain in Mull, and at the opening of the valley formed by this mountain and another ridge, thro' which flows a river forming a fine lake in it's course a mile or two beyond the house. In front is seen loch na Keal.
and the shores opposite, together with the Island which is placed at the Mouth of the Loch and shelters it from storms. We drank tea as soon as we arrived, and soon after grew very sociable: and concluded by a regular hot supper.

10th. We hailed a fine morning with great delight and after fortifying ourselves with an excellent Scotch Breakfast; Maria rode and I walked a quarter of a mile from the house to the Loch where we found our sailing boat ready. Two women followed us bearing a small trunk which our kind entertainers had filled with provisions and the key was given to me. The shores here

are covered with coarse light brown and yellowish seaweed with a good many pods in it like the Rottingdean Seaweed. This is turned into a very lucrative article; it is cut and then thrown into a trough and burnt, and after being stirred about a good deal with iron prongs it becomes liquid, when it is left to cool and it then turns into solid cakes which are used in the manufactory of soap

The Duke of Argyle's farms here are all let with the ^portion of Shore adjoining them. They are generally let low and are not above £20 a year. We embarked at 9 and set off with a very favourable

haze. On the right parallel horizontal rocky strata; farther on a few rough columns appeared. Came to the Island of [...]11 at the mouth of Loch na Keal and soon afterwards began to coast along Ulva, where we saw the House of Macdonald of Staffa, and soon afterwards had a view of Miss Clephane's Ly. Compton's mother in a distant part of Mull. The wind being so favourable our boatmen had no trouble in rowing and became merry and sang songs. We were particularly pleased with "Hatyin foam eri" mentioned in Johnson's tour.12 We had now the Island
of Colonsay on our left, and soon after came to [...]13 on our right an Island separated from Ulva by a narrow strait. Here we perceived an eagle standing boldly on a perpendicular cliff, we passed close by it, but it kept it's station without taking any notice of us. We now had Staffa full in view, the waves grew very rough as we got into a more open sea. at one we reached this extraordinary Island and landed at Clamshell cave where we sketched and then walked round the Southern point to Fingal's cave over the tops of columns. We were not
the least disappointed in this wonderful place, after admiring the view from the entrance we walked along a ledge of broken columns to the farther end; there is one awkward gap here where you are obliged to make an awkward side leap and a false step would send you reeling into the water beneath which is many feet deep. The water was now very calm as the wind was from the North, and we perceived a pink tint over the rocks which lay under it. The roof is arched and formed of perpendicular columns broken off. Some green appeared between the crevices of the columns. While we were standing here the boat rowed in and our piper struck up but the pipes made too great a noise from the loudness of the echo. A flute answers better. It's proper name is the melodious cave.14 There are a number of large anemonies and jelly fish floating about in the water here. We descended to the boat and rowed out of the cave to the South West where the view of the pillars and caves is most magnificent. Next to Fingals comes the Boat cave and then Cormorant's. The base of the Island is a rocky ledge in which are placed a line of pillars in oblique direction and intersected by these caves. In this part they are about 50 feet high and above them is a large mass also composed of pillars but comparatively very small imperfectly formed and lying across one another in all directions. above this curious mass is fine verdant pasture. The northern part of the Island is not to [sic] high and has two rows of ^small columns one above the other. The pillars on the outside of Fingal's cave on the South side are bent in at the top as if sinking under the pressure of the weight above them. In one place we observed serpentine pillars. Having repassed Clamshell cave we landed and walked up to the top of the Island where we spread a cloth on the turf and ate our dinner. Columns protrude their heads everywhere. A Shepherd the father of one of our boatmen once lived here, but he has left it and no traces of any habitation are to be seen. at present about 15 cows and a few sheep pasture here. We walked to the highest point of the Island and had a fine
view on all sides. To the North Rum and very distant Skye. To the west a number of small Islands some quite flat with low cliffs, one with a hump sticking up in the middle called the Dutchman's cap, and more distant Coll and Tiree; South Iona and it's Cathedral with the Paps of Jura seen faintly in the distance; to the East we had Ulva & Mull. After having devoted two hours and a half to Staffa which we saw in great perfection from the fineness of the day we reembarked and had an equally favourable
breeze to carry us back. In our way we observed at some distance Mackinnon's cave in the Mull coast opposite Ulva. Our boatmen again entertained us with singing and the piper played in his turn. To give proper effect to the chorusses of Gaelic songs they each take hold of the corner of a handkerchief and pull it up and down in proper time. They talked of whales and seals frequenting these coasts but we saw none. They believed in second sight, which they believe a person to be born with, but that the faculty is not developed
'till they are grown up. Staffa has not been discovered above 50 years.15 The heights of Benmore looked fine rising in the evening sky. We reached Knock before six. Col. Campbell entertained us in the evening with some of the natural history of the Island. He has caught 100 salmon in a day in the river above his house, but they have now much fallen off in number, owing to the sheepwashings, steam boats, and use of lime. The grouse are very much destroyed by the eagles and the grey crows who eat the eggs and also the young
grouse; their numbers are also diminished by the heather being burnt to increase the pasture for sheep. The Ptarmigan which are grey in summer turn white in winter; and the hares undergo the same change; foxes there are none. The Eagles also feed on young lambs, some of them are as large as 10 feet from wing to wing. There has been a fine herring fishery here this year; the fisheries established in the North of Scotland for the employment of the natives succeed in general very well. There are many red deer
which are driven out of the copses by dogs and shot at as they rush out; they may be killed at 100 yds. distance, but sometimes run on a long time after they have several balls in them. The bark of the Birch is used for charcoal and yields £20 pr. tun; the oak is cut every 10 years — from the facility of procuring this the Lorn works are established on Loch Etive; the iron being bought from Lancashire. Co. Campbell spoke much in praise of the Duke of Argyle whose pensions to poor
people amount to £1600 a year when his creditors wanted him to make some reduction on this head he said he would sooner make a reduction in any other expence. The old Duke used to make the Innkeepers keep Post Horses. The population of the Island is about 8000 and there are 30 Schools in it — the people are averse to begging and scrape up 9 or 10 pounds to leave behind them for their funeral when a grand fête takes place. Col. Campbell recollects an old man who used to chaunt
Ossian's poems in Gaelic. The Caledonian canal is entirely conducted and paid for by Government; but is said not to be very likely to succeed. The Navigation of the Lochs is difficult on account of the contending eddies of wind. The Canal will be large enough to admit frigates. Maria had two of the women servants up after supper who sung some plaintive Gaelic airs with great Effect.

Sep. 11. At 10 we took leave of our kind friends who supplied us with horses to carry us to Aross where we arrived at ½ past 11. and found the cutter waiting for us. We did not get under way till 1. Coasted along the ardnamurchan mountains with Ardtornish castle on the left — afterwards passed Dewart on the rt. and the lady's rock. From this point we had a fine view up Loch Linnhe the mountain forms being excessively grand and Ben-nevis in the background. Having passed the Island of
we saw Loch Nell bay to the North of Connel ferry where there has been the greatest draught of herrings this year. A favourable breeze bought us to Oban at 5. We left it at 6 and had a fine sunset ride to Connel ferry which we crossed ourselves but as it was growing dark I left William with the carriage to come over in the morning. The Inn is close to the opposite shore and we reached it at half past 7. it is very clean and we found civil people and excellent accommodation.

Sep. 11.^12A heavenly morning. The carriage was safely ferried over at 7; we had it opened and proceeded under some cliffs with the bay, promontory, lighthouse, and mansion of Loch NellGenl. Campbell's on our left. Soon after we arrived on the banks of Loch Curan the ferry is called Shean. While the boat was coming over from the opposite side I walked along a reef of rocks projecting into the Loch where I found a number of shells anemonies and marine
productions. The ferry is about ½ a mile across. On landing we entered a pretty wood and descending again as we emerged from it we perceived a small bay with a Gothic house on a hill opposite called Loch Eil house. At the mouth of the bay is the picturesque tower of Stacha on an Island and fine mountains behind on the other side of Loch Linnhe. The postillion here made a mistake and went strait instead of going up to the house. We met two fishermen who informed us of our error and
conducted us across the sands of the bay which were safe enough to cross the tide being out and we arrived at Portnacrosh entering it by a fine line of beach. It is a neat white village. Ascended a hill and came to the plantations of Appin House which rise up a bold bank the trees of all kinds about 50yrs. old and very thriving tho' close to this arm of the sea. The house is white and square and stands on a green eminence. The road now winds close to the margin of the Loch and Ben-nevis appears in the distance.
We turned off at Kiel where a promontory interposes itself between the road and the sea and met it again at Loch Leven. Opposite this point is Ardgoar, consisting of fine plantations and a white house standing on a flat sloping gently to the water, and tucked by Lofty hills in which there is a gap to the left and a glen opening to Loch Sunart and Strontian. The lake narrows and fine rugged mountain forms with some wood upon them present themselves as you approach Ballyhulish. Here is another
ferry about a furlong across; the boat is very small and bad and the boatmen were so drunk that I though the carriage wd. have been overturned into the water. Some people with a number of cows went over before us. There is an Inn on each side but the opposite kept by Cameron is much the best where we got luncheon. We were just setting off again at 6 when we saw the owner of the ferry boat suddenly strip himself and plunge into
the water as the drunkards had forgot to fasten it to the shore and it was drifting down with the tide, but he being drunk himself had not strength to get to it and was carried some way down the stream himself and some fears were entertained for his safety and a boat sent after him, but at length he reached the opposite shore in safety tho' without accomplishing his object. A most brilliant sunset lighted us on our departure from
Ballyhulish and shed purple and lilac tints over the mountains. passed a slate quarry with iron railways and waggons. A number of cottages many of them turf. Receded from the Loch and met it again at Coran Ferry where we shd. have crossed over to Ardgoar had Mr. Maclean been at home. The road now goes close to the Loch built up in many places, sometimes along steep precipices but in general narrow but as
good as possible. As we crossed a bridge and looked up a Glen to our right we descried Ben Nevis. Fine starlight and moon rising lovelily from behind a mountain. Boats here and there in the loch*iv — many people out at their doors and walking as in a fine evening in Italy. Reached Fort Wm. at 9. and found the best Inn full, we got taken ^in at the other end of the town close to the fort.

Sep. 13. This Inn is very dirty but the situation is pretty; it stands at one end of the village which consists of a longish street of white houses neat for Scotland — the backs of one side of them look to the beach. To the right we had a view of a new Episcopalian ^church erected close by, with hills rising behind it. In front is the fort which is small but has a moat bastions &c; and governor's house, storerooms &c inside. The English banner waves over all; and the lake washes one side of the walls. Beyond the fort are seen the Loch and mountains. The
village is properly called Gordonsburgh as it pays some dues to the D. of Gordon tho' formerly it was called Mary's burgh from having portions of land granted out at a low rate by Q. Mary. The houses have some of them picturesque staircases in front with iron balestrades. There was no service in the Protestant Church to day, in the Presbyterian they had Gaelic service at 12 and English at 2. We therefore set off in a boat rowed by 4 boys at 11 to go across the bay to visit the Caledonian Canal which
debranches at a village called Corpach. As we rowed over, Bennevis opened upon us, very rugged and grand but with not so fine an outline as I had expected, the top is flat. At the mouth of the Canal is an engine house. You first come to a floodgate 20 feet high and afterwards pass several others; the locks are well lined with stone and the gates are built in the most solid manner. We walked on about a mile to see eight locks which are close to each other and are called Neptune's Staircase.

They cost £50,000. This end of the Canal extending from Loch Eil (the branch of Loch Linnhe into which it runs) to Fort Augustus is finished except a little bit which is sufficient to prevent the water coming in for the present. The Lochy River runs all the way to the east of it and it crosses the river by a small aqueduct. The banks are very high and planted with different forest trees and quicks[...] at the top. From Inverness to
Loch Ness is also finished and Ships can come up from thence to Fort Augustus. The branch from Ft. Augs. to Loch Lochy thro' Loch Oichy remains to be done and will occupy two years more. We crossed the canal by one of the floodgates which have causeways defended by iron balustrades at the top, and returned on the other side to Corpach visiting in our way a turf cottage which seemed more comfortable than I expected but it is not so warm as one built of stone. The people made us taste whiskey sipping
it first themselves. They wear here the Highland costume; our Landlord was dressed in a splendid suit of it this morning. Barrels hereabouts supply the place of chimneys. Near Corpach is a pretty obelisk erected to Col. Cameron who died at Waterloo. On the hill above it is a pretty kirk. We had hard pulling on leaving this place to get back to Fort William as the wind was much against us being changed to the West. We shipped several heavy seas and regained the Fort at 2. We immediately hastened to Kirk which we found full and service had just begun. Minister with a black tasselled gown praying in the pulpit, clerk beneath, gallery round three sides of the building and pews underneath with an aisle left in the middle. The text was Blessed are the merciful; after the sermon came a prayer, then a Psalm after which boxes were handed round for alms for the poor. The clergyman then pronounced a short
dismissal. At half past three we set off, and not having time to go farther Northward we were obliged to retrace our steps back to Ballyhulish. Some boys followed the carriage whom I caught making a hole in the Postillion's sack tied behind and stealing beans out of it. Passed a tent pitched by some people while their house was pulled down and rebuilt. This being Sunday the people looked as clean as in England and were standing at their doors with their families. Rain now came
on and lasted all the way to Ballyhulish were we arrived at 6 and found good accommodation at the Inn North of the Ferry, which was provided with coals, a coach house and –––––

Sep. 14. Rain early. The people on the opposite bank were very lazy and we could not get the carriage over till 9, when we were going to cross ourselves but the landlord Mr Cameron proposed our going to see some falls at the head of Loch Leven 9 miles off — as

the clouds were clearing we agreed to go — and having got two good rowers we proceeded up towards Glencoe, and passed the Island of St. Mungo with the small remains of a kirk on it. This St. was originally a rotter but ended in becoming good and building 7 Churches. We saw a good many seals who followed the boat and had black heads shaped like dogs but a good deal larger they sometimes are seen in great numbers bathing
on the rocky Island here. They sometimes catch them in nets made of Whipcord the meshes of which are three inches square. Just where the Coe flows into the loch is the pretty house and plantations of a laird; the right bank of the loch is argyllshire the left Inverness. Tide against us but wind in our favor. Before reaching Glencoe are slate quarries — private property. The people who work them get 12s. a week; the slates are about 12.s. a 1000; few of the cottages however are slated. Here is a school established by the society in Edinburgh, but the parents of all (except those who are absolute paupers) pay something for their education. about 1/6 a year for reading alone, and more for the other branches. One of the boatmen said he rented about 5 acres of Col. Cameron the Laird on the Inverness side, and said he had not has such a crop for 20 years. On the left is
a very noble mountain with trees spreading up it to a great height and birches shooting out of the crags below. Fine tints of fern and heath on the mountains to the right. Hard pulling as we passed the narrow part of the lake. At length we disembarked on the left side and walked up to a waterfall called Eisnathic or the Fall of the Serpent. Here is a curious rocky arch overhanging the river as it falls and a little below the water has forced its way thro' a rock and pours thro' a round hole in the middle of it. Rowing on from hence quite to the top of the Loch, we stopped again to see the fall of another river which falls between 45 50 feet between very fine slats of rock with much wood about it.17 The water tumbles in an oblique direction and it is a most picturesque scene. At Kinlochmore a little beyond are the shooting boxes of Sir W. Cunningham and another Squire. On the hills on the South Side of the Loch are red deer which become lighter in winter. They never attack people. There is much grouse here
and our boatmen informed us that the Gamekeeper at the Black Mountain was in the habit of selling days of shooting to travellers. As we came back the tide turned and we had much hard pulling to Glencoe which we reached at 4. We changed our clothes at a cottage and then wound thro' the famous valley; the blackness and perpendicularity of the crags and the gloominess of the scenery is beyond every thing I have seen in my home travels. After a steep ascent ^of 4 miles we at length reached the head of the Glen where
the road turns, but we still went thro' very wild tho' less striking scenery, passing on our left the mountain called the Devil's staircase over which went the old road to Fort William. As it grew dark we descended to King's House which we reached a little before 8.

Sep. 15. The Inn here is slated and has two floors but is comfortless enough and has beds stuffed into the sitting rooms. We however got some good grouse. The House stands in a dreary moor with a

semicircle of rugged mountains to the West and North. We got off early and wound round the Black mountain where I perceived some snow. Much rain. Discerned in the distance the forms of the Grampians & Benledi. Descended and crossed the water of Bae wh. falls into Lochbydoch wh. we saw to our left, and beyond it is Loch Rannoch. Came in sight of Loch Tilly and soon after arrived at Inverounan a single house thatched, and with only a ground floor. Got some good boiled trout for breakfast. A very large rough greyhound kept us company all the while

Leaving this place we ascended thro' firs, and had a long pull up a mountainous tract; skirted along the base of Bendoran and descended to Tyndrum. Saw Benmore with young snow upon it. Reached the Inn at 1. and staid there 2 hours and a half to bait. In the hall are some stuffed animals caught here a wolf, a large mountain cat and a forrest. Got a parcel containing some books we had left behind us at Inverary. Leaving Tyndrum we came to Loch Dochart in which
is a pretty island with a castle. We reached Luib at 1/2 past 6. and found a good Inn, where we got an excellent supper of mutton, chickens, pancakes rice pudding, eggs, cauliflower &c &c. A noisy Irishman and his wife who almost came to blows began to annoy us with their clamour about bed time, but were soon overawed by the peacable of the house. He was driving some poneys to Edinburgh, and I found he was the man I had seen at Ballyhulish
threatening to pull Cameron's roof off his house if he did not get them ferried over immediately.

Sep. 16. Set off at ¼ to 7. and came in sight of Benlawers, descended to Killin — the approach to it is wonderfully romantic. Stopped at Cameron's Inn to breakfast the kirk is hard by, on the other side of the Inn is the burying ground, close under which rolls the Tay ^Lochy which we crossed after breakfast in walking to Lord Breadalbane's burying place, all his family are buried here. and according to our guide he is presbyterian

and no funeral service is performed here. The Mausoleum is plain and handsome and is overshadowed by a gigantic sycamore. The old Castle Finlaric is close to it. Thro' the trees is a beautiful peep of the vale and of a village of Lord B's on the opposite side of the river. We stopped at Mc.Alpine the pearl merchants18 as we left the village, passed the burying place of the Mc.Nabs and then ascended thro woods and passed close to Lord B's romantic villa. Passed people reaping — very fine crops and
a great deal cut. the harvest has not been so fine for 20 years. This time last year it was all green. The opposite banks of the Loch are as much cultivated and the inclosures reach a good way up the side of Benlawers. Much flax lying to dry. Good crops of potatoes & turnips. Stopped at Acharn where there was but a small stream dripping over the large slab of rock. In the Hermitage are some good stuffed animals and a white fox from Lochabber. Many wild cats are here caught
in traps. They do not attack man unless provoked. They live a great deal on game. The approach to Kenmore is very pretty, on each side are heights covered with fir and in the valley between the summit of Taymouth Castle is seen rising out of wood. The stone walls are topped with a neat turf coping. Kenmore is a neat white village standing on a knoll with half a dozen small houses on each side of a green; the church at one end and B's Park
gate at the other. Below the church and almost washed by the lake stands the schoolhouse a picturesque building with two fine sycamores uniting their branches over it. Walked down to the Bridge close on the other side of which is the Kitchen garden and a long line of glass with an elegant Gothic entrance. Having got the gardiner to come to us we entered the Park and walked up to a knoll whence we had a fine view of the lake just as the sun was gone down, every
thing looking very clear. Benlawers has still some of last year's snow upon it which is very extraordinary after the heat of the present summer; but it was much deeper than usual last winter. They had snow 30 feet deep in the hills by Acharn and some in the valleys even in May. Descending we entered a grass walk as smooth as a velvet between fine beaches with the river murmuring on our left. The walks here are all grass and are mown every week and swept every
other day. The park railing is very heavy and it is to be hoped will be altered. The park contains red as well as fallow deer but they are kept separate. The Hills on the left have six square miles of planting on them. This was done by the late Earl and took 16 millions of trees. More than this quantity is planted on the opposite bank. Lord B. plants annually employing as many hands as he can get. He can go 105 miles along his property which takes in all Loch Tay & Loch Earne
and great part of Loch Awe and reaches nearly as far as Inverary. He has 1700 families who pay rent and in the Irish Rebellion raised without difficulty three battalions of 700 men each. We went up to the house which has three stories besides the basement one. The two upper ones are all bedrooms. Round the basement runs an arcade which is to connect the wings with the body of the house, the ground for the latter is staked out and they will be begun immediately. In front of the
house is an ample flat lawn beyond which are woody heights on which is a fort with a battery of 34 Guns. Two of them are 24 pounders. The drawing room occupies the whole length of the front taking in five windows and seems a delightful room. We looked into the hall and staircase which was just lighted by two magnificent candelabras and looked beautifully light and airy. In it are two busts of George III and William III. The house has
been finished six years.

We went down a lime avenue a quarter of a mile beyond then wound round to the Chinese bridge which we crossed and returned by a broad green walk to the bridge at Kenmore. The entrance for carriages is near the Fort, and when guests arrive a bugle is sounded which echoes finely. Lord B. also keeps a piper and a band of wind instruments. The patches of land I observed in Benlawers this morning inclosed by stone walls are each of them let to a small

tenant. Lord Glenorchy came of age last year when they had rejoicings for 7 days. They had the Russian Duke here the other day when a royal Salute was fired from the Battery. There is a school of 150 children at the village kept by Mr Armstrong; he receives £30 a year from the Highland Society and the rest of his emolument is made up by quarter pence. The children pay for reading and writing 3s. a year for Latin 6s and many learn latin and Greek. Both boys and girls are taught here; the girls learn needlework at other small schools. There is no Sunday School, but they are all taken to Kirk by their Parents. The bridge built here was all at the expence of the late Earl except £1000 4/6. was paid by Government. The present Lord is sd. to distribute £2000 annually among the poor and gave £500 on his son's coming of age. The family generally stay here from July to January. Tomorrow
a market is expected here for cattle, butter, cheese wool &c — We our reached auberge at 8. after a delightful walk.

Sep. 17. Our Inn here was the Breadalbane arms the crest of which is a Boar's head and the motto "Follow me." The only shops in the place are a Baker's, Haberdasher's, and Watchmaker's. We got up early and found the green crowded with pedlars and other people putting up their booths. Sketched the school house while the horses were getting ready and then took

the road to Dunkeld which goes on the South Side of the Tay and is very Superior to the other wh. is rather less hilly.

We ascended a steep hill and stopped at the foot in front of which are two lines of guns on a smooth lawn. Hence is a magnificent view of the Castle, woods & Loch. Beneath us we saw the grooms bringing round the shooting poneys to the door. The sweep of the Tay seen from hence is also very fine.

A little further on we came to the Porter's Lodge which is handsome Gothic and irregular. The park wall has a coping of schist built in the form of battlements wh. has a good effect.v Soon after we came to a Druidical temple on the right consisting of three circles of stones the largest of which is 50ft. in ,Diamr. [Diameter] Descended to the Tay; Castle Menzies on the opposite bank an old turretted house belonging to Sir O Neil Menzies who has
an estate of 5 or 6000 a year here. Gen. Wade's Bridge on the left. Got to Aberfeldy at 1/2 past 11. The Muslin manufactories there are broken up. There are a number of Inns. The maid who waited on us at breakfast has "sair e'en" and wore a necklace made of Druidical beads which are sometimes picked up in this neighbourhood as a charm to cure them. We walked afterwards to the falls of the Moness where there
is but little water, but a fine glen and very high crags. The Landlord of the Inn told us that Lord B. had £72000 a year, and that the land on Benlawers was let for £3 a Scotch acre. This gentleman ^whose name was Mc.Naughton sported a splendid escutcheon of his own, with stags for supporters, a castle for his crest and "I hope in God" for his motto. Past Aberfeldie the vale widens; there is much corn and most if cut. Met a number of people
going to Kenmore market. Came to Grand Tulloch on the right a picturesque castle belonging to Sir G. Stewart. Several villas on the opposite bank all white with plantations stretching up the hills behind. This vale is very much like the vale of the Clyde between Lanark and Hamilton, perhaps less rich & more wild & romantic. Stopped a short time to bait at Balnaguard and then ascending a hill had a view of Logierait
The Tumel joining the Tay and the vale of the former river up to Killicranky. Here we turned our backs on the romantic scenery which leads to Blair Athol, and the Dunkeld woods began to open in front. Passed several pretty places, particularly Kinnaird with high crags behind and a view of the vale in front. The wood becomes luxuriant as we descended lower into the valley. Saw some stacks thatched with broom. Before
reaching Inver returned to the right and walked up a mile to the Rumbling Brig, where the fine cleft in the rock and the impetuous pouring of the torrent called forth our admiration. From the bridge is a distant view of the town of Dunkeld — returned by path thro' larch wood 25 yrs. old and very tall for that age. Went along the Banks of the Bran where there is a seat with a circle of Larches round it. Ossian's cave a small hollow formed
by some pieces of rocks. Farther on is a pretty little plot of ground ornamented with a great variety of different kinds of heath. Came to Ossian's hall where the water pours down a large slap of rock in three parallel streams. We went from hence thro' a nursery and into the great road which soon brought us to Inver where we met the carriage and soon reached Dunkeld. The woods and ways here look as fine
as ever. The South Side of the bridge was built on dry land and the channel made under it for the river which before pressed too close upon the town and overflowed it. The town is very neat and great part was rebuilt by the Duke. It is all of grey stone. We immediately proceeded to make the tour of the Duke's grounds. The paddock extending from the house is nothing like so large as the Park at Taymouth.
We descended by the flower garden filled with American plants which do not thrive here to the river, where the view is most beautiful. The Duke is now at Blair Athol, between wh. and Dunkeld he spends all the time from June to Jany. He has 100000 acres of wood some of wh. was planted by the late Duke but the greater part by him as he has been planting constantly for the last 40 years. He has now ^been selling larches to Government for building frigates.20 Here are some excessively fine firs and larches and among the latter are the two first ever planted in Scotland each containing about 200 solid feet of timber and 15 feet span at the bottom. A House has ^been built close to his own by the Duke for his children's Governess, which spoils his view very much and blocks up the ground between it ^him and the river. The ferry where
people used formerly to cross the river was in the middle of the lower walk — this was altered when the bridge was built and made to wind up the hill above the town. The old ferry house still forms a picturesque object. Observed a singular larch tree in which a branch had again grown into the trunk of the tree21

The largest fish here are about 90 yrs. old. We got in at ½ past 7. Soon after a stage came in wh. in summer was 3 times a week from Edinburgh to Inverness. Took a moonlight walk in the eveng. below bridge down left bank of the river.

Sep 18. Fine morning — Breakfasted at ½ past 7 and went to inspect the East end of the Cathedral which the Duke is repairing assisted by Government. It was fitted up some years ago as a church but in a poor miserable style with common wooden windows. Stone window frames according to the old design are now put and the inside is stoothed and stuccoed and has a groined ceiling. The most eastern extremity where there is a
large window is parted off for the vestry, the church being quite large enough without it. In the nave of the Cathedral which is unroofed is a pulpit from whence the sacrament is given once a year when this ruinous pile is quite filled. At half past eight we crossed the bridge and bade adieu to Highland Scenery; passed under Birnam wood — people quarrying and rolling stones down the hill to build a wall at it's base. A road on the opposite
side of the river follows the windings of the Tay to Perth. Ascending a hill we had a lovely view of a bend of the Tay it's course thro' a rich vale with Murthly castle, and the Ochils in the distance. Auchtergaven is a thriving manufacturing village with pink stone houses roofed with blue slate. Soon after passed a high pole surmounted with a weather cock placed on a high mound in honor of it's being a boundary of Lord Lynedoch's estate to the North. Extensive bleaching grounds;
crossed the almond; Scone opposite a handsome irregular pile of brown stone with many towers. There is a fine strait approach to Perth wh. is a very handsome town; the houses on the green as you enter are extremely dashing with their stone pillars and ornaments. We walked about the town and shopped there was a great bustle being a market day and a number of Highland Soldiers with their music playing. We afterwards went up to Kinnoul Hill; the latter part of the walk is thro' wood and very steep; when you emerge from this you stand at the edge of a precipice 600 ft. perpr. [perpendicular] and have a magnificent bird's eye view of the river and vessels below, and of the Ochil and Lomond Hills in the distance. Got back at 1/2 past 2 — Lunched and started again. We next passed some handsome barracks on entering the town and on leaving it came to an immense and well
constructed building which was made for a depot for French prisoners and contained some thousands of them. It is now used for stores. Dunsinane we left far on our left but perceived it's hill in the distance. There is a fine avenue to the town on this side which puts one in mind of France. Wound along the base of Moncrief a fine ridge of wood and rocks — Ochils in front. Their Eastern extremity is sloping and woody. Crossed the Earn; children with light blue caps. Turned
to the right through glen with close rocky banks and ash trees growing luxuriantly. Workmen blasting rock to widen the road. Crossed the Fargo and entered Fifeshire and soon after Kinrossshire. Asking an old man what was the separation between them, he replied "this sma' burnie decides the business." Ascended a hill and came in sight of Lomond a pointed mountain, which a countryman who overtook me on horseback
told me was rich in gold silver coal lime and some other valuable productions which I forget. The Road is dull & barren for some miles when it comes in sight of Loch Leven. Passed Forth Mills a thriving village and stopped at Kinross Green a good inn before you come to the town. Graham is the principal proprietor — Blair is another — they divide the take between them. We got excellent accommodation here. The Caudron Linn &c are between this place and Stirling.

Sep. 19.

We made our entrée into Edinburgh by Princes Street where a fine new Gothic church stared me in the face close to the old one at the base of the Castle. Drove to Dumbeck's where we secured rooms & then walked out. The North loch Bridge has been disfigured by some large houses built from the Register office to the bridge which intercept the view. The improvements on Calton hill are astonishing. The road has been blasted along the rock and is now almost completed. It is paved with square cubes
of granite taken from Salisbury Crags, on each side is a footpath and towards the precipice a low parapet wall. From the end of Princes Street to Calton Hill has been thrown the Regent's bridge a single arch of immense span and depth. Above the Parapet on each side is a triumphal arch & colonnade. Passing over it you come to Hume's monument rising from the burying ground on the right; and then approach the Gaol behind which rises the Governor's house composed of some
fine towers irregularly built upon the verge of the precipice. Next to the Prison comes the Bridewell and beyond that ^will be the Debtor's Gaol, the entrance to which from the road is just completed. Above us on the left we had Nelson's pillar near which is the observatory — a Grecian lodge of very pretty architecture is being built close to it. Fine sunset — succeeded by a shower.

Sep. 20. Rain all day. At 11 we went to St. Paul's church in York place close by. It is

Gothic with a small tower at each of the four corners. The inside is very neat with a groined roof and a handsome window; the galleries on each side add to the accommodation but spoil the look of the building. They are supported by Gothic ornaments. The organ and singing were very fine. Alison preached; an oldish and respectable looking man. His text was "Lord what shall I do to inherit eternal life?" Called on Mr Bell and went in his carriage to St. George's Charlottes Square, for the evening service.
Mr Thomson preached. The service began with a Psalm, then followed a long Prayer and the Sermon; after which was a Christening for which every body staid the father came up to the pulpit with his child to have it baptised. after this there was a prayer and a psalm & lastly a few words of dismissal. We dined at our hotel at 5. —

21. A fine morning. Breakfasted and walked out at ½ past 8. We went under the Regent's bridge and thro' dirty streets into the High street

thence to Holyrood. The palace is nearly all of the time of Charles II. except the old towers which were built by James V; but the chapel which is now in ruins was built by David in 1100. He founded it on being saved from being gored by a stag in hunting. In the long Gallery or ball room are the pictures of all the old Scotch Kings and the line is brought down to Charles II. The Duke of Hamilton is hereditary Govr. [Governor] of the Palace and has a suite
of rooms as have several other noblemen. The state rooms are occupied by Colonel Nairne. The Gallery was used as a chapel by the French Princes during their stay here. In the adjoining rooms saw pictures of Mary — Earl of Lennox father of Bothwell22BothwellD. of Hamilton beheaded in Cromwell's time. The beautiful miniature of Mary is gone as it belonged to one of the ^ladies in the train of the French court who took it away when she quitted this place. —

Above are Mary's state

and private bedrooms; her dressing room and the boudoir where Rizzio was murdered. A private staircase leads down to the Chapel from whence the conspirators ascended. Here are the boots of Bothwell and his iron helmet and cuirass — The (beaver) hat of James I. child linen basket of Mary —and French dressing box of hers with partitions and pincushions. That part of the bedroom where Rizzio was murdered was parted off by the Queen as may be seen
by the ceiling. Here are portraits of J. Shore and N. Gwynne.23 Went down to the Chapel founded by David all the Nobility of Scotland have a right to bury here. The Ballusses on the North Side are all gone except two; the chapel has been repaired lately or wd have fallen to pieces. The Skeletons of some of the old Scotch Kings were shown here till lately.24 We walked from hence in to the King's park, and had St. Leonard's crags opposite, behind rises Arthur's seat
We went along the valley between it and Salisbury craigs which is as still and desolate as possible. Winding thro' this we at length came to that part of the crags where they are quarrying and then walked along the way traversed by Butler25 and descended by a steep and almost impracticable track to the Southern Bar of Cannongate which leads to Cowgate. This ^latter is very narrow and leads under the South bridge to the Grass market.
We however turned up to the left and walked round by the College which they are going on with and ornamenting with pillars the Shafts of which are composed of a single block. Crossing over the South bridge we came to Hunter's square and the Tron church. We then went up High Street to the Commercial Bank and afterwards to the Castle. The day was not fine enough to show us the distant view.
Heriot's Hospital forms a fine feature in the foreground. A new turret has been built at the highest part of the castle and rather spoils the effect by it's modern appearance. A keeper has been appointed for the regalia discovered here and has a salary of £100 a year. They are not yet shown to the public. Returned in the rain at 1. Got Luncheon and went to Fraser's the Jeweller's in Prince's Street just opposite the Register Office. Then to
Saunderson's another trinket merchant in Hunter Square. Saw a large loadstone supporting a weight of some stone. a curious fish caught with herrings with peacock colours upon it — preserved in spirits. a boat made by the Esquimaux. Went to Allan's a good painter in Parliament Square. Here we saw an excellent painting of a conquered family sold by a Circassian chief to a Turkish Bashaw. A Jewish Marriage from the life price 100Gs. Inside of cottage 40Gs. both these much in the style of Teniers.

Went at 5 to dine with Mr & Mrs Bell. Met there Dr Gregory and a Danish Doctor travelling for information. Walter Scott is a commissary of [...] and has a salary of £100 a year — the place is almost a sinecure. I heard of his talking of spending Sunday on the Continent so much more gaiety &c than in England. A million of Bolls of potatoes have been sent for from London, & some in this neighbourhood have been taken up too early
and spoilt. The Danish Dr. wod. not allow that the English conquered at Waterloo. Came away at a little past 9.

22. Wrote letters. Breakfast at 8. Young Bell called and we walked up Princes Street over the Mound; passed by the Bank and came to Parliament square. The Tolbooth was only pulled down eight months ago. It stood North of the Church and there was a narrow passage between it ^and the latter; and the Luckenbooths

were between it and the North side of the Street. Part of the church which was divided into 4 was devoted to the Tolbooth. Walked on a little farther and turned down the West Bow a street winding down a steep hill, and came to the grass market which does not extend so far to the Westward as formerly. Thence to Heriot's Hospital where a number of children all in the same dress were playing on the green before it. The building not designed by Inigo
. It is ornamented with a number of little picturesque turrets. In the inner court is a statue of the founder who it is said made a large fortune not by very fair means and left it all in this way. The number of boys is 175 who are all fed and clothed; they learn Latin and Greek and must be orphans of decayed tradesmen. There is a beautiful view from hence of the castle rock which rises in a bold perpendicular manner. We returned up Cowgate and mounted a flight of steps to Parliament square.
We went in to see the Courts. In the center is a large hall something like Westminster with an old wooden ceiling — it contains a statue of Lord Forbes. On each side is a Court. The Hall is soon being repaired; on it's walls are paintings of the Stewarts, William III and Anne, and statues of the late Lord Melville & Dr Hugh Blair are to be put up in it. Adjoining are the Advocate's and Writer's Library, one over the other and both adorned with pillars
supporting Galleries for reaching the upper shelves. This building has some steeples at the top and is not in good taste. In the Square is a bronze equestrian statue of Charles II. adjoining the libraries is a fine new wing with an Ionic Portico. Went back to the New Town and past the Catholic Chapel with a Gothic port — called at Nasmyth a landscape painter where we saw views of Glencoe, Ld. Roseberry's park, Loch Katrine &c His son who lives in London
paints much better. We went afterwards to Raeburn's and saw a number of portraits more remarkable for likeness and expression than beauty of attitude. There is an excellent one of Mc.Nab chief of a clan, in a Highland dress; belonging to Ld. Breadalbane. Little Ld. Montgomery on a poneyLord Hopeton leaving on his horse. Mrs Brougham. We here took leave of Mr Bell, and after buying some plaids and ascending Nelson's Tower we returned to Dumbecks & having paid our reckoning started at

The street by which we left Edinburgh is wretchedly dirty & miserably paved; no town wants a new entrance more. We passed close by Arthur's Seat & the King's Park. Approached the Firth at Musselburgh — fine view from the hill beyond of Preston Pans, Edinbu &c. Haddington neat town & clean Inn. Passed by Lord Wemyss's staring old chateau and came thence by Starlight to Dunbar which we reached at 8. & stopped at the new Inn.

23. We took a walk after breakfast this morning to see the castle which stands on some bold rocks, thro' which are two natural arches; the views of the coast, with N. Berwick Law & Bass are very Romantic. Lord Lauderdale's house stands at one end of the town facing the street — and the other front has a beautiful view to the Castle & sea. There is a pier here; which runs up to a mass of basaltic columns. The Solan Geese which frequent the Isle of Bass
are very little eaten being fishy and strong 3 sell for 1s. a peice. We had the carriage open on leaving Dunbar & had fine coast views, but missed Pease bridge the road being carried over a levelled tract more inland. The people here are much dirtier and envelop themselves in mantles. Passed Broxmouth Duke of Roxburgh's Windmills with double sails — large inclosures — sea weed spread on fields for manure. after passing Ayton Mr
on our left we ascended a high hill and had then a fine ride along the brows of high cliffs; and soon obtained a distant view of Northumberland the Fern Islands & Bambrough Castle. Berwick is in England it has one large church but contains also a number of Scotch Kirks. We got luncheon at the Inn and called on Mrs Forster where we staid half and hour. Rain came on as we left Berwick.
Crossed the Tweed — passed Sir C. Haggerstone's — arrived at Newham about 7. Mr Dinning in bed but came down to us to tea when Mrs Selby also joined us.

23.27 Rainy morning. Mr N.D. rode over about 11. and I went over the estate with him. Inspected new plantations — & projected a large square one near Warnton. Buildings there in excellent order. Walked in garden with the farmers. Fine

horse they had for sale. Came down from high ground passed Mr Pratts, & crossed the road to Adderstone & returned along the road to Newham. Afterwards Maria & I took a walk up the high ground and in the evening went to see the threshing machine. Poor D. complained much & went to bed very early.

24. We breakfasted early and the morning being fine determined to take Bambrough

Castle in our way to Alnwick. It was a very bad road and I walked the greater part of the way before the carriage. We called on Mr [...] at the Castle who very civilly showed us over it. It originally belonged to a Trustee whose daughter & heiress married Lord Greave28 who paid off a heavy mortage laid on it by Trustee and left the estate to charitable uses. Sixty years ago Archdeacon
grandson of the Archbishop cleared the sand from the Donjon tower & fitted up a room in it in a rude manner — the beds being made of masts and Sailcloth. He founded the library and put a gill tip on the conducter of the tower. Succeeding Trustees built up the remainder of the castle upon the old foundations. A certain number of children are always taught fed & clothed here. and there are all sorts of
of assistance for shipwrecked people. Including Captain Manby's invention of fixing a rope. There is a small armoury here with some old pikes in it. The walls are 11 feet thick; and there is a well cut 155 feet deep in the solid rock. The Castle has often been besieged. Corn is distributed here at a low rate in times of scarcity. In the library are some of the books of Archbishop Sharpe. We went out by
the Sally port and rejoined our carriage at the Inn. Passed Twizell HallMr Selby's — and afterwards Mr Pratts. At Charlton we turned off a quarter of a mile to the left and called on Mr.N. D. and his bride. From their house you see Falloden a good sized red brick building rising out of wood. The Country improves and becomes more woody on approaching Alnwick. Three pillars are seen as you come near it — one of them erected
by the D. of Northumberland's tenantry in gratitude to him in 1815. It his^is of the Doric Pestic order and is surmounted by an iron railing and a Lion; with Esperance en Dieu on the pedestal; it cost £3000 and subscriptions as small as 5d. were contributed to it. Crossed handsome bridge over the Aln and ascended hill to town.

We went all over the castle which till 60 years ago (when it was rebuilt in the old style by the Duke) was a

ruin with only a few old towers; figures are placed along the top in imitation of the old style; few of the original remain. We entered by an old Saxon Gateway into the Court in wh. stands the body of the building. To the right of the entrance is the Dungeon in which are placed some Roman antiquities; an altar & the heads of some deities — Underneath is a still worse place of confinement, on the outside
are the marks of where the rack used to be fixed. Here is the proper measure of the Winchester bushel in bell Metal. In the Chapel is the long line of the Duke's ancestors emblazoned on the walls. Charlemagne is at the head; some of his successors married Counts of Louraine who intermarried with the Percys. The ancestor of the Percy's is called Mainfred A.D. 870. The first Earl of Percy was in 1100.
At the farther end of the Chapel is the tomb of the late Duchess who was daughter of the D. of Somerset and heiress by her mother's side to the Earls of Northumberland She was Countess in her own right and married Sir H. Smithson who was created Duke in 1786. The late Duke was their son. The Portrait of the late Duchess is haughty & dignified. In the armoury are suspended the Bugles of the Percy corps
raised by the late Duke and which he commanded at Bunker's Hill. Here is the canoe and dress of an Esquimaux princess with a double oar. In one part of the walls along wh. is a walk is a seat called Hotspur's chair. There are some old cannons in the lawn but too old to be fired without danger of bursting. The Duke & Duchess are at present at a shooting Box in the West Side of the Country.
After leaving Alnwick the Country is rich but hilly. Passed Nelson's pillar in Mr Davison's grounds. Several Gentlemen's seats; Felton Hall on the right side of Feltonbridge a pretty situed hamlet; Mr deLisle's on the left. Ascended a steep hill & reached Morpeth at 7. and Newcastle ¼ to 10. lighted with gas from the streets & houses The Queen's head being full we drove to the Turk's head kept by Cumberland Fletcher.

25. The morning was very rainy. Old Hindmarsh came to the Market and I found him out and at 1 oclock Maria & 1 set off in a chaise for Callerton with him as our outrider. The country is pretty and the day clearing up I was able to walk all over the estate and we returned to Newcastle
to dinner. In the evening I saw Mr Thomas heard from him the acct. of the fire at Hexham (Col Beaumonts) –––––

26. This morning we started early — and took the road by ^Corbridge Hexham & Haltwhistle to Brampton and thence to E.C. wh. we reached about 6. and walked up to Stone House before dinner where we found all well. —

Authorial notes

i. N.B. We saw different tokens hung up at the [...] ^prospective stations of the artisans marking their degrees of merit for which they receive prizes. —
ii. * called the Lorn works from the name of this mountainous district.
iii. * a very pretty setter belonging to our pilot swam off from land more than a quarter of a mile and reached the ship.
iv. * The fishermen today told me they had caught a barrel full sometimes they catch 7 or 8 barrels — at Ballyhulish some boats came in loaded which they cd. not get sale for. You may buy a barrel for 7S. –––––
v. The description of the park wall is accompanied by a small ink sketch showing its crenellated top.
vi. N.B. The floors of the houses in Edinbr' are called Lands in the old Town, flats in the new.


WM 1815
A. bottom case

Is date of this journal circa 1819 perhaps? RS

1819 confirmed
6 September was a Sunday in 1819

Editorial notes

2. Walter Scott, The Lady of the Lake (Edinburgh: 1810), III, ii, l.2. Scott's poem contributed to the development of Loch Katrine and the Trossachs as a major tourist site.
3. A reference to the central character of Scott's The Lady of the Lake.
4. The demand for tree bark for use in the tanning industry had a significant impact on Scottish woodland in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries; see T.C. Smout, Alan R. MacDonald and Fiona Watson, A History of the Native Woodlands of Scotland, 1500-1920 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), pp.248-53.
5. This site was apparently intact when visited by Dorothy Wordsworth and her companions in 1803: 'just as we came in sight of two huts, which have been built by Lady Perth as a shelter for those who visit the Trossachs, Coleridge hailed us with a shout of triumph from the door of one of them, exulting in the glory of Scotland. The huts stand at a small distance from each other, on a high and perpendicular rock, that rises from the bed of the lake.' Dorothy Wordsworth, Recollections of a Tour Made in Scotland (New Haven, London: Yale University Press, 1997), pp.102-103.
6. Archibald Campbell, third duke of Argyll was not succeeded by his son but his cousin, John Campbell (c.1693-1770), the fourth duke. The fourth duke was in turn succeeded by his son, also John, the 'late duke' mentioned here.
7. Fraoch Eilean and Inishail.
10. A site near the fort of Dun Mac Sniachan on Ardmucknish Bay was spuriously identified with the royal city of Fergus II by the fifteenth-century Scottish historian, Hector Boece. Despite the unreliabilty of the attribution, it was taken up by subsequent writers and travellers and is marked on James Dorret's A general map of Scotland and islands thereto belonging (London: 1750). Beregonium is also mentioned in Sinclair's Statistical Account of Scotland (Edinburgh: 1791-1799) and (with a degree of scepticism) in Pennant, A Tour in Scotland and Voyage to the Hebrides 1772 (Chester: 1774), p.411. See also Richard Pococke, Tours in Scotland 1747, 1750, 1760, ed. by Daniel William Kemp (Edinburgh: Scottish History Society, 1887), p.69 and Robert Angus Smith, Loch Etive and the Sons of Uisnach, (London: 1879).
11. Eorsa
12. Boswell records that during a voyage by rowing boat to the island of Raasay, their pilot Malcom MacLeod 'raised an Erse song, Hatyin foam foam eri'. Ronald Black writes "Hatyin foam eri' is 'Tha Tighinn Fodham Éirigh' ('I am Minded to Rise'), a well-known song of which various translations exist.' Samuel Johnson and James Boswell, To the Hebrides: Samuel Johnson's Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland and James Boswell's Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides, ed. by Ronald Black (Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2007), p.148, p.317n.
13. Gometra.
14. The volcanologist Barthélemy Faujas de Saint-Fond visited Staffa in 1784 and argued that Joseph Banks's 1772 identification of the cave as 'Fingal's' stemmed from a mistranslation of the similar-sounding Gaelic name for 'melodious cave'. See Nigel Leask, 'Fingalian Topographies: Ossian and the Highland Tour, 1760-1805' Journal for Eighteenth‐Century Studies, 39 (2016), 183-196, p.185.
15. A reference to Joseph Banks's description of the island in the journal of his voyage to Iceland in 1772, printed in Thomas Pennant, A Tour in Scotland and Voyage to the Hebrides 1772 (Chester: 1774), pp.299-309.
17. Possibly the Grey Mare's Tail near Kinlochmore.
18. In a letter to Thomas Pennant on April 7 1774, John Stuart of Killin wrote that the River Dochart 'a few years ago answered better for pearl-fishing than perhaps any other in the Highlands. Some of the largest and best were found in it, and sold mostly to merchants in Perth.'
20. Despite the duke's aspirations, only a single naval prototype was built using Atholl larch. By 1818 the end of the Napoleonic wars and a plentiful supply of timber from the empire rendered the Atholl plantations largely redundant. See Fredrik Albritton Jonsson, Enlightenment's Frontier: The Scottish Highlands and the Origins of Environmentalism (New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2013), pp.147-164
21. At this point in the manuscript there is a simple ink outline of the tree branch rejoining the trunk.
22. Graham appears to be confusing Mary's second consort, Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, son of the earl of Lennox, with her abductor and third consort, James Hepburn, fourth earl of Bothwell. The painting referred to might be Hans Eworth's portrait of Darnley.
23. Jane Shore and Nell Gwyn were mistresses to Edward IV and Charles II respectively.
24. See 'A Tour through part of England and Scotland By Eliza Dawson in the Year 1786'.
25. The minister Reuben Butler, a character in Walter Scott's 1818 novel The Heart of Midlothian.
27. The dating of entries inconsistent at this point in the journal.
28. Apparently a reference to Nathaniel, third Baron Crew