Internal ID: 0051 [see the .xml file]
Identifier: NLS Acc.8278, 1-86
Notes:

For ease of reading the author's unpaginated notes, given at the end of the manuscript journal, have been linked in this document to the passages to which they refer. The journal bears a bookplate with the name Leonard Clark. Folio numbers have been added to the journal in a modern hand. Some punctuation and corrections appear to have been inserted in a different ink; it is unclear whether these are later corrections by the original author or additions by a separate hand.

Editors: Edited with an Introduction by Alex Deans
Cite:


Tour in Scotland August 1794.

“Care Selve beate,
E voi solinghi, et taciturni Horrori,
Di Riposo e di Pace Alberghi veri,
O quanto volontieri
A rividervi I’ torno: e se le Stelle-
M’ havesser dato in sorte
viver à me stessa, e di far Vita
Conforme a le mie voglie:
Io già co’ Campi Elisi
Fortunato Giardin de’ Semidei,
La vostr’Ombra gentil non cangerei”

Pastor Fido Scena V.

“A tale of the Times of old! The Deeds of Days
“of other Years. The murmur of thy Streams O
“Lora brings back the memory of the past.
“The sound of thy Woods, Garmallar, is loudly
“in mine Ear.”

Ossian’s Carthorn.1


Thursday,
August 1st. Left London at 1. O. clock in the afternoon, and were set down in Carlisle on Saturday at 2 P.M. This City is small, dirty and ill built: the Castle, in one of the Towers of which Mary Queen of Scots was confined, is strong, but irregular, and without any Dignity or Symmetry of Parts; and the ramparts which surround the Town are of the same Description. The Town appears not to be populous or Commercial.

We left Carlisle on Sunday 4th., and soon came in sight of the Bor-


ders form’d by an immense chain of Mountains, beginning at the West with the lofty hill of Scrawfell rival of the great Skiddaw, which with the range of Mountains bounding the Lakes of Cumberland appear’d in view to a vast distance. We pass’d over the extensive Plain of the Solway, formerly the Theatre of mutual Devastation, and the scene of many a bloody Encounter between the two Hostile Nations now so happily united. This Plain is celebrated for the extraordinary Eruption of the Moss. It issued from an aperture no larger than the Mouth of a common well. Being a solution of the Mossy Pulp in water, no obstacle which might have stopp’d or retarded
the progress of a Solid Body could withstand it’s Course. This inconsiderable spring poured forth it’s Contents with such Copiousness and Rapidity, that in an Hour’s time it overwhelmed a Track of Country many Miles in all Directions, completely burying it under this extraordinary Lava. Many People were surprised in their Houses, and narrowly escaped with their Lives. It cover’d the Bridges and roads, and stopp’d the Course of a number of rivulets, rendering all communicati^on between the different Parts of the Country impracticable. In the Course of Years it has been removed and thrown into the
River Eske, and so carried into the Sea, but there still remain many prominent Marks of the Devastation.i 3 On passing the River Sark we enter’d Scotland by the celebrated village of Greatney, and went on to Douglas Mill where we slept.

Mnday 5th. Walked to Lanark along a dreary and uncomfortable Country. Here we visited the Cotton Mills belonging to Mr. Dale, in which no less than 1700 Persons are employ’d. There is an Institution forming part of this extensive Scheme which does Honour to the Proprietor, and which cannot be contemplated without Pleasure and Admiration. This Benevolent and truly Patriotick Man employs no less than 300 Boys and Girls, all of indigent Parents, who are brought


up in the Mills, and are taught the art of spinning in the Cotton and the other branches of the Business. They are fed and cloath’d by Him for a certain term of Years, which being expired, He gives to each a Suit of Cloaths and 20 S. in money: and then they are at liberty to seek new Masters, or to remain in his service. But while they are thus acquiring early Habits of Diligence and Industry, and attaining that Skill in the Manufacture which is the Foundation of their future Independance in Life their Minds are by no means neglected. This munificent Patron maintains no less than 11 Masters for their Instruction in those useful
Parts of Knowledge that are most appropriate to their situation in society; such as Reading, Writing and Arithemik; which are taught after the Termination of their daily Occupations in the Mills. We saw there 300 sit down in a large Room each with his Cogue or Bason (no small one) of excellent Scotch Broth and their respective Rations of Oatmeal Bread. They appear’d to be stout, healthy children. In another large Room exceedingly well ventilated they sleep in large Beds containing 3 a piece. So extraordinary and ingeniously contrived is the Machinery of the Mills that all the operations, which are of amazing Variety and Complication, are perform’d by children under the age of 12 Years. Mr. Dale the Proprietor
is a singular Instance of the Effect which Industry and Prudence aided by Fortune may produce. Although some Years ago He was only a Journey-man weaver, He now gives bread to between 6 or 7000 People employ’d in the various Departments of his Business.

The Mills are situated about 2 Miles up the River from Lanark and their first Appearance is very striking. They are built in a deep or rather profound Glen close to the Clyde, which is hemm’d in on both sides by high and rugged Precipices, ---- rolling over 2 or 3 little Falls, and again broken by detach’d Fragments of Rock producing and Agitation attended with a continual murmuring Noise. The main Body of


the Building is parallell [sic] to the River, and there is a large detach’d Wing to the westward of it: and in the middle is a very fine spacious Area. At a little distance from the Mills stands a small neat and regularly built Village belonging to Mr. Dale, and built by Him for the residence of his Mechanics. At the brow of the Hill by which it is approach’d from Lanark this whole scene suddenly opens to view: the first Object which immediately ^arrests our attention is the Building of the Mills which ^being very lofty, regular and entirely of Stone together with it’s Extent and the stature of it’s Situation, impresses ^us with the Idea of the retreat of a Great Monarch rather than of a Place destin’d for the Exercise of mechanical
Industry: and indeed the whole corresponds with every Suggestion which could proceed from the warm Imagination of a Poet.

Mr. Dale politely shew’d us the Works: but it is difficult to convey to those who have not seen them any precise Acquaintance with their Structure, the various Parts or their general Cooperation.

The whole is set in motion by one Wheel of amazing Dimensions suspended in the Center of the Building, it’s Axis on each side resting on the solid Rock, in which is cut or blown a chasm large enough to permit the Revolution of the wheel. The Stream which drives it runs through the Perforation of a solid


Rock some hundred yards in length and it ends on a level with that part of the River’s Surface from which the Current into it is powr’d. The channel of this current runs parallell [sic] to the Course of the River with considerable rapidity: the Elevation from which it proceeds being about 50 Feet above the bed of the Water at the Mills as the River descends from the aperture by 3 Falls: and it is made with that degree of declension requisite to give the Water it’s necessary proportion of Velocity and Force. In the center of the area there is a receptacle for the water of a circular Form, and being here collected, by means of sluices which can be raised and depress’d, is regulated
the Quantity of Water which turns the great Wheel, and consequently the Quickness of Motion in the whole Machinery. This is measur’d by means of the Dial Plate of a Clock, the Hands of which are turn’d by the Revolutions of the great Wheel, which is compared with a Common Clock placed in the same Room (Counting House) : 20 Revolutions being fix’d as the Standard of a Minute, and occasionally as it becomes slower or faster the water is so regulated as to bring it within that medium.

The 1st. Operation is that of carding the Raw Cotton. It is placed on a flat Frame of Wood under a long round Piece of polish’d Iron: in this situation it is


gradually taken in by the Revolution of a Cylindrical Carding Brush: from this it is caught by another of finer and closer Wires, and being brought up in the Course of the Revolution it is intercepted by the repeated and regular strokes of a straight single row of Teeth supported upon and acting by 2 Levers, which strikes it off the Cylinder, whence it is transmitted between two plain Pieces of wood which being round and continually revolving draws it out in shape of a long narrow Train of Cotton, and in this manner it is lodg’d in a Tin Case. By the same operation it is afterwards gradually reduced to a size fit for the Bobbin.

The fine Thread is produced by a curious Process. A Leathern strap attached to some of the larger secondary


wheels which are put in motion by the Primary Movement goes round a certain number of smaller Dimensions ranged along a Frame: these last again have another strap each going round a certain number of Bobbins. — Large Bobbins of the coarse Thread Thread being placed on the Top of the Machine arranged in a straight Line standing perpendicularly, and turning loosely on their axes the Thread is introduced: 1st between a wooden plain small Cylinder, and under it a fluted metal one, both turn’d by brass Wheels, which reduces it to a particular Size: 2d. it then succeeds to another viz: a Cylinder cover’d with fine Leather and another of Metal finer than the first and brought closer together, in order still farther to attenuate
the Thread: 3d. it’s ultimate Finess [sic] ^is produced by a third of the same Description, bringing out a Thread as even and uniform as that of a silk-worm. In this last stage it is wound round the lower set of Bobbins mention’d above: then are placed in 2 Rows (as likewise the larger ones) on a Frame, which in order that the Thread may be equally distributed along them is rais’d and depress’d by the revolution of a plain Elliptical Wheel: thus lifting up the Bobbins along with it, & gradually letting them down again, so that every part has it’s due proportion of the Thread.

About ¾ of a Mile above the Mills are the two stupendous Falls of the Clyde call’d the Bonniton-Lyn and the Corallyn. To these we are led by a walk in the


Park of Lady Ross, romantically winding along the Bank of the River, and awfully looking down on it’s deep dark and rug--ged Bed, flanked on each side by high and perpendicular Rocks. Of these Cascades the Corallyn is by far the most considerable.

The Water is first collected in a round Bason in a vast Inclosure of the Rocks on each side, from which it moves with Majestick Slowness ‘till pitching on a craggy Bottom immediately below the Line of the Bason it is instantly broken and throw’n into the most furious Violence and Ebullition. It is carried on in this manner foaming and agitated for some way over a nearly horizontal surface, until it arrives at the brink of the first Fall


(for there are properly two) over which it is precipitated with great force, and plunging into the Flood below, by the Rebound throws up it’s water in Pyramidical Columns to a considerable Height. Being here in a manner collected for the greatest onset it soon arrives at the last Fall which is much higher and of greater Expanse that the first: it rolls it’s mighty Volume over the shapeless Precipice with a resistless Force and thundering Sound, it’s terrifick appearance and the solemn Grandeur of the scene which surrounds it suspending every Power of the Mind in Astonishment and Awe. The Spray, at the same time, ascending like Clouds of Smoke to a vast Height ^and illuminated with the rays of the Sun flings into the atmos-sphere all the vivid Clours of the Prism,


and they are sometimes ^often exhibited in a circular Form, some Parts of the spray near the surface being thrown into a Revolutionary Motion. When it falls on the Rock below the foaming Whiteness immediately ceases as if the whole Body of the Water were swallow’d up in a gulf. When the Sun shines upon it, the Light from on it’s surface is so strong as scarcely to be sustain’d by the Eye, and it gives to all the neighbouring Objects a sombrous and melancholy Aspect. Behind is seen the calm and glassy Surface of the Bason from which this tumultuous Scene proceeds buried in a deep and cavernous Obscurity; presenting to us the contrasted Representation of the most placid Tranquillity, and the most ungovernable Violence & Disorder.
Bonniton-Lyn is much inferior to the last, and consists of one Stream thrown over a Rock.

At about 4 Miles down the River is the Fall of Stone-Byers: it consists of 3 distinct Columns of Water, one above the other, thrown each from an amazing Height, in an immense Mass, and it exceeds by far the other two in Magnitude and Grandeur.ii

Lanark is a pleasant little Town and situated in a charming Country.

Tuesday 6th. August. We walk’d from Lanark, and arrived in Glasgow late in the Evening after a fatiguing. March of 36 Miles, and render’d vexatious by some cross accidents. The Road lay along the Banks of the Clyde, and the country appear’d well cultivated and


finely wooded. We stopp’d at Hamilton, and saw Chatelheraultiii the residence of the Duke of Hamilton. It is an old Mansion, & has nothing to the exterior to recommend it, nor can much be said for the Furniture and internal Decorations. The grand room the only one worthy of remark is long and well proportion’d, but it is furnish’d in a manner which seems to betray the perverted Taste of a Voluptuary. In different Places there are Setees on the Floor “a la Turque”: in other Mattrasses [sic] and sofas with arm-chairs and Reading Desks so confusedly arranged as to give it strongly the air of an Upholsterer’s Warehouse. It contains however one invaluable Curiosity, the Painting of Daniel in the Lions’ Den by Rubens.
The Figure of Daniel in the middle is exquisitely painted. The admirable attitude, the exact anatomy, the Inflexions and Indentures of the Muscles so excellently express’d, and the clean fleshy colouring, all conspire to render it a perfect Production of Art. In the Eyes and Face turn’d up to Heaven we could almost imagine that we discern’d the carious Emotions then working on his Mind, were we not certain that it exceeds the Province of Painting to express at the same instant any Variety or Combination of them. The Lions are all admirably drawn, in different attitudes, and by their manner strongly impress us with the Idea of being restrain’d by a supernatural Power. In one of the rooms there is an Original Painting of Mary Queen of Scots: it corresponds
with the Testimony of Historians relating to the Beauty of that Unforunate and misguided Princess.

After leaving Hamilton we pass’d over Bothwell Bridge celebrated for the Defeat of the Covenanters by the Marquis of Montrose. We visited the remains of the Castle which is a Noble Ruin, standing on the Top of a Hill high and steep, and at the foot of it the Clyde rolls it’s troubled Flood.

August 7th. and 8th. Stopp’d at Glasgow. This large Commercial and Populous City is the best built of any in Scotland: the Fronts of the Houses are chiefly of Stone, many of them having Collonades and Porticcos with other architectural ornaments; and being mostly detach’d from each other they have more the appearance


of little Palaces than the Residence of Private Citizens. The High Street in particular is very magnificent, being built in a straight Line running to a great length, and the Houses on each side having regular and lofty Fronts. At the Top of it is the Toll-Booth and the Exchange, and under it the spacious and elegant Coffee House of the Tontine, to which the Merchants resort to transact Business.iv

The Cathedral is a superb Gothick Struc-ture situated on the summit of an Eminence North of the City, and can be seen on all sides at a great Distance from Glasgow. It is divided into 3 Parts the one Wing being set apart for the service of the Parish in which it stands: the other is call’d the Low-church:




and the center is dignified with the Name of the High-Church. This Part is spacious, lofty, well-lighted, and the cluster’d Gothick Columns with their corresponding Arches are in the best proportions of that grand stile of architecture. That Aisle which is with great propriety call’d ^low is exceedingly dark, and has more the appearance of the Dungeon of a Prison than a Place destined for the Exercise of a Religion which inspires Comfort, and awakens us to pleasing and serene Enjoyments. At the End of it there is a Cymetry a Place where is no Light but rather Darkness visible7 and painted black in order to aggravate the Gloom:
in short in every respect calculated to render our instinctive Dread of Death more horrible. These many leading Families in the Town have their particular Vaults.

The College is by no means remarkable: they have however begun a new Quadrangle which is to be built in consequence of a bequest of John Hunter the late eminent Surgeon, and for the reception of his valuable Anatomical Preparations, which He has left to the society.

There is a singular Piece of Convenience which the People of Glasgow enjoy, and to which I have seen nothing similar elsewhere. In a large Meadow extending along the Clyde, called the Green, there stands a low Quadrangular Building, in the


inside divided into equal Portions or Compartments by means of small wooden Pillars, giving it the appearance of a small Piazza: in the middle is a large reservoir of water brought from the River and thrown into this Bason by forcing Pumps: in the Corners are Boilers for heating the water. All the washing Work of Glasgow is perform’d in two Places of this kind, each of those Portions being let out indiscriminately to a certain Number of washer-women, who have the Advantage of being supplied with Hot and Cold water, and of drying their Linen on the Green at the Rate of 3d. a day. We saw 200 Acres of Ground cover’d with
washing Articles of every Description. The Clyde where it runs by Glasgow is broad but not navigable, being very shallow and it’s course broken by Fragments of the rock, over which it goes with a continual Noise. There are two light and elegant Bridges thrown over it here. Owing to this Impossibility of navigating the River so high the Trade of Glasgow is carried on at Greenock and Port Glasgow near the Mouth of the River.

At 4 Miles from Glasgow is the Vale of Kelvin celebrated for the Stupendous Aqueduct which conveys over it Part of the Grand Canal joi^ning the Firths of the Forth and the Clyde. It consists of 4 arches, the span of each appearing to be about 50 or 60 Feet


and the Height including the Parapet between 70 and 80. The Descent of the Canal to it is by 5 Locks closely succeeding each other, every one of them having under it a large circular Bason to supply the necessary waste of water. The Cut from the main Body to Glasgow is 3 Miles in length: it is conducted over 3 Bridges of amazing Strength and Solidity, each consisting of a single Arch of about the same Dimensions as those of the Aqueduct: and ends at a Place called Port Dundass greatly above the level of the Town. The great Level is 156 Feet above the Sea, and it descends on one side by 19 on the other by 20 Locks. It carries
Vessels of 150 Tons Burden being 8 Feet deep. The Expence of constructing it is stated at £250,000.

Friday 9th. August.

Sailed from Glasgow down the Clyde to Dunbarton, and saw on each side a pleasant Country, but not striking or picturesque. The Town of Dunbarton is built on a Flat, close to the River Leven. It is a small Town and carries on an inconsiderable Trade with Ireland. The Rock, on the Summit of which the Castle is built, stands perfectly insulated on a Plain extending 2 Miles on all sides, exhibiting the curious and almost unparallell’d Phenomenon of a Height or Mountain totally aloof from any other Eminence. From the River or the Plain, even at


a small distance it appears diminutive and almost contemptible, nor is but by a near Approach that we discover it’s great Extent, it’s Height and impracticable Abruptness. It is naturally divided into 2 Parts or Rocks nearly equal, between which in the inside there is a Passage by a Flight of Stairs overhung by large Pieces of the Rock which seem to be critically poised.

Captain Robertson a Brave Veteran, and a Man of the most obliging Politeness conducted us over the Castle. From Him we learnt that it is 1 English Mile in Circumference, and the Rock 567½ Feet high. He shew’d us a spring almost at the highest Elevation sufficient


in case of a Siege to supply 1500 Men. In a Cistern supplied by another spring He shew’d us a Trout which has lived there for 20 Years. In a late repair order’d by Government in digging to the Foundation a small Piece of Artillery was discover’d of a singular Make. It is of a Calibre of 1 Pound, but in stead of Trunnions to mount it on a Carriage it has a long Handle each End of which joins the Barrel, and is just of Weight enough to be carried by a Strong Man according to the suppos’d Intention. In service it was most probably placed on the Ground or any other casual support that might offer itself. ^We saw here the Sword of Sr. Wm. Wallace,
justly esteem’d the Greatest of those Heroes whom Scotland has produced, and to whom the fond and hyperbolick Admiration of his Countrymen has ascribed Qualities which exist only in Fiction.

Some Parts of this Rock seem to possess a magnetical Property, for by making an Experiment with a Needle the North Pole was sometimes attracted and sometimes repell’d, and according to different Positions pointed to all Qarters [sic] of the Horizon: and this Variety of Effects took place within the Compass of a Yard.

To the North of the Castle there lies a Fragment fallen from the Rock for a time immemorial, the size of which


is astonishing. It appears in bulk equal to the Hull o a 1st. Rate Line of Battle Ship, and the surface of it next to the Castle is an exact Duplicate of the perpendicular Face of the Rock at the foot of which it lies. Fragments of the Rock frequently loosen and are precipitated, and Captain Robertson related to us two Accidents of that Kind, which were nearly attended with fatal Consequences. Lord Cassilis, who was Governor about 60 Years ago, intending to take an Airing in his Carriage had it drawn up in the usual Place: (where the Rock is perfectly perpendicular): the servant had open’d the Door, and was holding it in that manner ready for his Lordship to enter,
who was at the Instant at a small distance giving some Instructions to the People around Him, when in the Interval a prodigious Fragment flew from the summit of the Rock, and pitching on the Top of the Carriage dash’d it in pieces, the servant escaping unhurt. The second Instance is of his own Daughter, a Beautiful Young Woman, who passing near the same spot about 20 Pieces of Stone of the size of a Man’s Head came thundering down about 3 or 4 Yards behind Her.

The importance of his impregnable Rock during the Civil Discords in Scotland is sufficiently known, and


accordingly it became the scene ^of one of the most gallant Enterpriz ^ses recorded in History.

When Lennox was Regent of Scotland during the Minority of James 1st. and Deposition of his Mother this Castle was then in the Hands of the Queen’s Partizans and Lord Fleming was Governor. Capt. Crawford of Jordan Hill a Man of invincible Resolution and Enterpize form’d the desperate and seemingly impracticable Scheme of taking it by Surprize, being in the Regent’s Interest. The Plan and Practicability of the Attempt were explain’d to Him by a Soldier who having serv’d in


the Garrison was acquainted with it’s accesses, and was urged to this Piece of Treachery by Disgust and resentment arising from some ill wage which He had experienced in the Garrison. Accordingly towards the Evening of the 24th. March 1571 Capt. Crawford left Glasgow with a small by determind Band and reach’d the Rock towards mid-night: the Moon was up but overcast with clouds and afforded them just light enough to lead them to their dreadful Purpose without hazard of Discovery. After having surmounted incredible Difficulties, and vanquish’d many unforeseen Accidents with great Presence of mind they arriv’d at the foot
of a Pa^rapet wall 10 or 12 Feet high closer to the Guard House (whic [sic] is still standing) and which it was their Chief object to surprize when a trifling Accident had nearly disconcerted this daring Plot. The 1st. Man who ascended was seiz’d with a Fit while yet on the Ladder, but Capt. Crawford, one of those whose Faculties are only sharpen’d by Danger tied Him fast and then turn’d up the other side. He led the way was seen by the Centinel as He mounted, whom He instantly cut down: his gallant Companions enter’d the Castle with triumphant Shouts where they met with no resistance. He accomplish’d his Purpose without the Loss of a single man, and was rewarded with the Command of it. Lord Fleming had just time to escape half naked in a Boat across the Clyde.


It may be mention’d among the Curiosities of this that Capt. Robertson who at present has the Command is in Countenance and Person extremely like the Present King, and He tells a pleasant Story of his having been saluted by the Guard of St. James’s in consequence of being mistaken for Him.

Saturday 10th. August.

Walk’d to the delightful and romantick Village of Luss, situated on Loch-Lomond in a beautiful little Valley, having behind it a fine Skreen of Hills, exhibiting from the water a most lovely Scene. We walk’d for about 5 Miles along the Banks of the pleasing Stream of the Leven, running through a


rich verdant Valley which it fertilizes & embellishes. All along this Track to the Mouth of the River issuing from L. Lomond the Country is wonderfully pleasant, highly cultivated, and abounds with fine Plantations. The Road to Luss is excellent being well shaded having the Appearance for some Miles of a delightful Avenue. About 2 Miles from Dunbarton we meet with a Pillar erected, at a Village called Rantyn, by Mr. Smollet of Bonhill to the memory of the Celebrated Dr. Smollet who was born on this spot, so elegantly described by Him in one of his last Poetical Productions. In this Vale and along the River’s side lies the pretty Village of Bonhill, built in
detached Clustres [sic], and extending almost the whole length of the River: the Houses are small but neat and have slated roofs: close to them are numerous Bleaching Greens and other Indications of Population and Industry; and the whole Scene seems to be peculiarly the Seat of Competence and Ease. Near Luss we pass’d by the Seat of Sr. James Colquhoun standing in a most elegant Situation on the borders of the Loch, and commanding and extensive View of it’s surface, many of it’s Islands, and the distant mountainous Boundaries. This Loch is 35 English Miles in length: it’s greatest breadth is 8: but about 5 Miles from
Luss it becomes very narrow, and continues so for 20 Miles. It is bounded on all sides by high Hills, and towards the North is seen the towering Height of Ben Lomond: there are 24 Islands, some of them 2 or 3 Miles in circumference, extremely well wooded, and adding greatly to the Beauty and Richness of the Scenery.

It is impossible by words to convey an adequate Idea of this enchanting Landscape: the Eye is bewilder’d in it’s numerous Mazes, and almost fatigued with the Variety of Objects presented to it, while the Fancy pleasingly exercised in contemplating the different Scenes exhibited to it is lost in


their endless, and inexhaustible Combinations. Sometimes we see a broad Expanse of water with Rich and Verdant Isles beautifully grouped, and floating on the Surface of the Lake: at other times the Landscape covers almost it’s whole surface, which is only seen by glimpses, defining with it’s Silvery touch the Boundaries of the different Islands and Objects that enter into this grand Composition. — Sometimes when the Sun is setting behind the Mountains we see their shadows projecting to the very Verge of the Horizon & spreading a dark Veil over the whole Landscape: and sometimes when his Rays shoot through the Vallies
it gilds the Sides of the Mountains, shewing by contrast their black contiguous Ridges: and it terminates in the distant Hollows of the Mountains discovering their deep Defiles, their vast Cavities and immeasurable Bulk: but this Light is beautifully soften’d and diversified when it flows smoothly over the level Surface of the Scene, shedding a lambent Smile on the whole Face of this lovely Groupe.

I ascended to the Top of Ben Lomond and saw a most extensive Prospect, from the German Ocean at the Mouth of the Firth of Forth to the Irish Sea. The View was great, but not so pleasing as might be conjectur’d: for at that height all the




Objects are too much under the Eye, and lose their grouping and comparative Dignity. It had more the appearance of a Map than a Landscape. I could trace the River Leven from it’s Source at L. Lomond, with all it’s Inflexions, until it falls into the Clyde at Dunbarton. The Day was in general very fine, but now and then a Mist or Scud passed over the Mountain, so that I saw this wide Prospect with alternate Splendor and Gloom. I could distinctly count all the Islands of the Loch the most considerable of which are InchMain; Inch Calloch, Carlin’s (Old Mans) Island so called from being the Burying Place of the McGrigors;8
Inch Lonach, entirely cover’d with Yew Trees about 1500 in number: Devannah or Monk’s Island where formerly there was a Monastery; and another call’d for what reason I know not, Luss Prison. The Loch itself was diminish’d in appearance to the size of a Pool, and it required my former Experience of it’s dimensions to assign it its proper rank in this grand assemblage. Towards the side of Argyleshire I saw nothing but immense Ranges of Mountains hiding the champain Country from view. East-ward close to the Foot of the Mountain runs the Water of Alloa9 through the Vale of Monteith; a Region

“Forlorn and Wild,
“The Seat of Desolation void of Light”:

10


and seemingly more fit for the Haunt of Dæmons and Wild Beasts than for the comfortable Abode of Human Beings. This Place was formerly the Residence of the murderous and vindictive Clan of the McGrigors, a Name detestable to every Lover of Humanity. The opposite side of the Lake was inhabited by the Colquhouns, and between these and the McGrigors there subsisted a mutual Jealousy & perpetual Warfare. The Murder of the Colquhouns the fatal catastrophé that terminated those bloody Feuds is known to Every one the least conversant in Scotch History. It seems that the immediate Cause of this Massacre was owing to
the Colquhouns’ having inflicted summary Execution on one of the McGrigors who was detected in stealing a sheep. A Meeting was appointed to adjust this and various other Differences, to which the McGrigors under their chief Rob Roy McGrigor came armed, surprised the Colquhouns, and made an undistinguishing Slaughter of Them: and to consummate this horrible Cruelty, they pursued and murder’d in cold ^blood a number of People, chiefly Young Men from the College of Dunbarton who were standing on the Top of a Hill, (which I saw) innocent spectators of the scene.

This infamous Atrocity was retaliated by a signal Act of Vengeance, and of a


nature unprecedented in the History of Man.

No Decree ever issued by any Human Power was more severe, or follow’d up with a more merciless and merited Execution. All sympathy with Them as partaking of a Common Nature was declared to be dissolv’d: they were pronounced to be Enemies to their Species: their very Name as abhorrent to Human Nature was extinguish’d, and it was made Felony in any Clergyman to give it in Baptism. Orders were issued to pursue Them in all Directions and fall on them without mercy whereever they could be found, and the Murder of a Mc. Grigor was not a Crime


but a Merit. Such of Them as attempted to save Themselves by flying to the Hills which were inaccessible to Men, were track’d, hunted down like Wild Beasts, and tak’n or torn in pieces by Dogs of extraordinary Fierceness and Strength. The miserable Remnant who succeeded in saving Themselves went into the different Parts of the Country, and assumed the prevalent names in those Places where they settled. This salutary Act of Justice produced many beneficial Consequences by restraining that bloody Spirit of Revenge, the Consequence of Hereditary Feuds which had always actuated the Highland Clans.

Monday 12th. August walk’d to Araquhar:




on Loch Long, and next Day to Cairndow on L. Fine.v

The approach to this Place lies through the tremendous Defiles of Glencro and Glenkinglass: one of the grand and aweful Passes into Highlands. For about 12 Miles this Glen which is hemm’d in on both sides by amazing high, and craggy ^Rocks, exhibits a savage Grandeur truly dreadful; nor is there any symptom of Vegetation or Track of a Dwelling to check the unabating Horror of the scene.

Wednesday 14th. Walk’d to Inverary.About 2 Miles from Inverary a noble Prospect opens to view. The Centre Object is the Duke of Argyle’s Castle situated


on a fine Lawn, and having behind it a Majestick Amphitheatre of Wood: on the left is the neat Town charmingly built on the Edge of the Lake which presents a Wide Expanse of Water cover’d with hundreds of Herring Boats, animating the Place, and giving it an appearance of lively Industry: and on the right hand rises the lofty Cone of Dunecoich surmounted with Wood.

The Castle is built in the Gothick Stile with 4 flanking Towers like Bastions with Battlements on the Top, and a Square Tower in the middle: a mode of Architecture incapable of the Noble Elevation, the regular Proportions, and the rich and dignified Elegance of


a Grecian Front. The Inside with a few exceptions is very fine. The Dome over the Vestibule is too high, and is almost lost to the Eye on entering the House. The Dining and Drawing Rooms are particularly worthy of Notice, the Paintings and Gildings with the other Decorations being executed in the highest Stile of Elegance and Taste. In the Drawing Room there are some Pieces of Gobelin Tapestry which are exquisite. The Subjects are Pastoral and truly in the Taste of the French, a People who, although they have excell’d almost in every Art and Science, have by a strange Fatality been marked by a wide Departure
from Nature both in Fiction and Philosophy. Here we saw Parisian Sheperds [sic] with “Chapeau bras” and Coats of Courtly Cut, silk stockings and neatly pointed shoes, approaching in Opera attitudes to ravish Kisses from tonish sprightly Milliners, who seem not very solicitous to repel these bold advances. The Flocks which are feeding around them, and whose silent Indifference is the very Essence of such a scene, are unnaturally made to cast sympathyzing looks on these amorous Couples. But amidst this absurdity the Workmanship challenges our admiration, and is superior to all criticism. The Figures are finely drawn,


the Colours are beautifully bright, and the Shading manages with such Delicacy and Softness, that it is necessary sometimes to approach them in order to be satisfied that it is not Effect of the Pencil.

The Herring Fishery is the great Support of this Country and it’s Neighbourhood. There are about 3000 Boats employ’d on the Loch, each carrying 4 Men. At Sunset they set sail and assume their different Stations; for the Fish can only be taken in the Night: they then let down their Nets which are more than 100 Yards long to the depth of 50 to 60 Fathoms, which they draw up towards the morning, and Instances have been of a single Net’s enveloping 10,000 Fishes.


About 60,000 Barrels are salted and sent to the West Indies as Food for the Negroes, besides the immense Quantity which the Country People lay in for Winter Stock, and the great Consumption of the fresh Fish; for the chief sustenance of the People in this Quarter of the Kingdom consists of Herrings and Potatoes, which last are accordingly much cultivated here. The Average Price is about 10 a Penny. August 15th. Walk’d to Dalmalie along a most barbarous Country. This delightful Village is situated near the Head of Loch Awe:vi13 and about 2 Miles distance from it on the Border of the Loch are the remains of Kilchurn Castle, formerly the Residence of the Earls of Breadalbane and built by Sr. Colin Campbell Founder
of that Family. It was built by Him in the Year 1440, after his Return from the Crusades: it is in the Saracenic Stile of Architecture, which He introduced into Scotland. The Principal Tower next the front [sic] of the Building is square and high, having Turrets at each Angle most beautifully rounded at the Bottom, appearing as entire and fresh as in a Modern Building, and indeed all the architraves of the Windows and the Coign [sic] Stones of the Tower had the same appearance. It is one of the finest Ruins which I have ever seen. It is sufficiently dilapidated to give it the venerable air of antiquity, but we can exactly trace out the original Design of all its Parts. There is something singularly melancholy in viewing the prostrate
Remains of these Edifices, not intended merely as the Residence of Grandeur and Festivity, but likewise constructed for Protection and Defiance: it reminds us solemnly of the Transition of Human Greatness, and the uncontroulable changes which take place not only in Men but in Ages themselves. The appearance in the Inside brought forcibly on my Memory the affecting Passage of Ossian in Carthon one of his most pathetic Compositions:

“I have seen the Walls of Balclu-
“tha, but they were desolate. The Fire had resoun-
“ded in the Halls: and the Voice of the People is
“heard no more. The Stream of Clutha roll’d mur-
“muring over the fallen Walls. The Thistle
“shook it’s lonely head: the Moss whistled to the
“Wind. The Fox look’d out from the Windows:
“the long Grass of the Wall waved round it’s
"it’s Head. Desolate is the Dwelling of Moina,
“Silence is in the House of Her Fathers.”14

At the distance of about 3 Miles from Kilchurn on an Island in the Lake call’d Fraochlyn (Heath Island) stand the massy remains of another Castle in an impregnable Situation; but with regard to it’s Founder, and the Purpose for which it was built, Tradition is silent.

August 17th. Walked to Tayndrum. It is a dreary, miserable Place. I here view’d the Inside of a Highland Hut: at the door there were an Old Man and his Wife, each past 80, assisting a Young Couple in shearing the Sheep. The Old People look’d healthy and active. There was no accom^modation in it beyond the reach of the Scanty means,


and uninventive [...] ^Genius of a savage: in Nakedness and Misery it could not be exceeded by the wigwam of a Hottentot. It’s Economy is simple and soon described. There is only one Division or Partition in it: by it a small Portion is set off for the Accommodation of the Family: the Fire is in the middle of this Part, and above it an aperture in the Roof serving as a chimney, but the Windows are occasionally used for the same purpose. Over the Fire is suspended a chain with Hooks (call’d in the Lowlands a Crook) on which they hang their Pots for boiling Meat; Roasting being necessarily unknown among them. The Beds are ranged along the Wall each Department of this little Society, having according to Circumstance a particular one assign’d to it. The other
Part of the Hut which is by far the greatest is used to stow their Feuel, their Instruments of Trade, Culinary Utensils, Food for their cattle, and occasionally in severe weather the Cattle themselves. In these uncouth Dwellings to use the Words of Tacitus applied to the Germans

Nations in a Civilized State are constantly and progressively making Improvements, and changing the Structure of their Habitations, the Nature of their Food, the Habits of their Life, and even their National character itself: but Pastoral Tribes, living in a State of Simplicity, and scatter’d thinly over a vast but unproductive Country, are in all those Particulars doom’d to a Stationary Sameness:


the Arabs and Tartars will a thousand Years hence be the same they were a thousand Years ago: and it is probable that about the middle of last Century the Scotch Highlanders were not very different from those who lived in the Days of Fingal.

August 18th. Walk’d to Killin. this word signifies in the Gaëlic a Burying Place: as it was here that Fingal was interr’d whose Tomb is still shew’n. The Entrance into this very pleasant Village is singularly Romantick. It is situated on a Peninsula on one side of which runs the River Dochart, a broad and copious Stream, and on ^the other the Lochay, both falling into Loch Tay a Mile below Killin. The Dochart close to the Bridge of Killin by which we enter the place is broken by numberless Rocks, twisting and eddying through


a vast number of Channels, and hurrying over the rugged Fragments in hundreds of Rills and Cascades. About 3 Miles from Killin we saw two Falls of the Lochay, which are very grand and little if at all inferior to those of the Clyde at Lanark.

The Parish of Killin extends 30 Miles, and the whole Duty of it is perform’d by one Pastor, and his assistant.

The Country from Tayndrum to Killin is the Highest in Scotland; it is therefore by the Highlanders call’d Braid Alba or Albin: Braid signifies Head, Albin Scotland. At the Half-way House between Tayndrum and Killin the Top of a Crozier was shew’n to us, which the owner ignorantly called a Medal, of


Rich Workmanship, in the possession of a poor Man of the Name of Dewar, certified under a Writing or Probate, sign’d by James 1st. of Scotland to have been in the possession of his Family since the time of Robert Bruce, and mention’d there as a Sacred Relique of St. Fillan who first converted the County of Perth to Christianity.

August 20th. Walk’d to Kenmore or Tay-mouth: the course lay along the Banks of Loch-tay.

We began about 5 O Clock in the morning: the Dawn was clear and silvery: the Lake was perfectly smooth, and an even mild Light being universally diffused over it, the Face of it appear’d as if it had been polish’d and reflected the opposite Country,


which was High and sloped down regularly to the Outline of the Lake, with all it’s Fields, Woods and the surmounting Hills with as clean and precise a Definition as could have been produced by a Mirror. The Loch is on all sides surrounded with Greatness. Towards Killin we saw it magnificently terminated by the Hill of Benmore, one of the Highest in Scotland, rising in Elevation to the Eye as we encreas’d our Distance from it, and sinking the scenery approximate to it in proportion, an appearance familiar to those who have travell’d in mountainous Countries. We visited in our way Ld. Breadalbane’s Hermitage, from a Window of which,
contrived on purpose, there is seen a Cataract 140 Feet high rushing down from the muddel of an amphitheatre of Wood at about 60 Yards distance. Ld. Breadalbane’s Seat here is admirably situated: there is a very broad walk or rather Terrace in his Park running 3 Miles along the Tay particularly entitled to Admiration.vii

August 21st. Parted with my Friend Mr. Booth.

I walk’d to Dunkeld along the Tay: on both sides of which I observ’d a great Number of Gentleman’s seats with their Policies (Plantations): and abundance of Farm Houses neatly built, and around them a fruitful and highly cultivated Country, giving Employment to a numerous Peasantry at that time employ’d in




getting in the Harvest.

Some way beyond the 7th. Mile Stone I was surprised at the Appearance of 4 stones standing perpendicularly in a Field near the Road upon a small Hillock.17 On going up and examining it, I found it to be the remains of Druidical Temple, and could trace the Situation of the other stones, and even the Vestiges of the Entrance very distinctly, according to the perfect Model discover’d a few Years ago at Jersey, and now erected in General Conway’s Grounds at Henley. It occurs to me at this moment, as a singular Circumstance, that having formerly walk’d about 50 Miles in different Directions in the Island of


Anglesey the Chief Seat of the Druids, and of consequence the Emporium of their superstition, I met with no Monument of a similar Kind. — The highest Stone in this was 10 Feet from the Ground, about 4 in breadth and 6 Inches in thickness.

The Access to Dunkeld is thro’ a deep Glen guarded on each side by high Hills of steep Ascent, cover’d with Pine Woods through which we sometimes see the Rocks looking down majestically on the River Tay. This Scene continues for about 3 Miles. Dunkeld stands close to the River, embosom’d in Woods and Eminences that surround it, exhibiting a beautiful Coup d’œil, and singular in that Beauty. It has the Depth of Salvator Rosa without his Horror: it has the Richness and


chastity of Claude Lorrain though not his Extent and Variety.

In looking down upon the Town from Hill to the Westward of it, the Buildings appear without any Exception regular and uniform: The Walls are all white: the Roofs are slated, and as the streets run in straight lines, the Houses appear from that view arranged in even Rows. Here the Duke of Athol has a seat: his House is commodious but no ways remarkable. It was here that the late Duke in a fit of Fury and Derangement, the Effect of a Fever, eluded his Keepers and drown’d Himself in the River. He is universally spoken of in this Country as having been a Man of the most amiable character.


August 22d. Walk’d to Blair.

The Castle at this Place which is well Known to have stood a Siege in the Year 1746 is now modernized, and is a Residence of the Duke of Athol.

In this route I went through the famous Pass of Killycrankie. It has infinitely more Grandeur with a less mixture of the Horrible than any of the numerous Defiles which I have as yet seen in the Highlands. I must not omit to mention that near the begginning [sic] of it I met with another Cromleach with 6 of the Stones standing and unbroken.

August 23. Went from Blair to Killycrankie and view’d the Field of Battle fought between Lord Dundee and General McKay, on July 7th. 1789.


From examining the Nature of the Ground Dundee’s Disposition appears to have been as masterly, as that of his opponent was weak and injudicious. His first Position was on the Face of a very extensive Hill which in a manner flanks the Pass: at the Foot of it there is a Plain bounded by a Bank towards the River, and the Flat of the Defile. On the appearance of McKays Army He descended, and ranged his Troops on the Plain. By this measure He secured an advantageous Ground, and an excellent Retreat in case of a Disaster; as he could easily retire to his former impregnable Situation.

McKay drew up his Men close to the Bank upon a narrow Plain, a choice of situation subject to innumerable Inconveniences without a single Advantage.


In the first place his Retreat in consequence of a Discomfiture was cut off by the Rivers Gary and Tay. His Horse and Artillery were absolutely useless, there being no Room for either to act on the Front of the Highlanders. As the Plain was so narrow He could not change his Line of Battle, and was therefore exposed to being outflanked by Dundee’s Army, who could choose their mode of fighting; and which actually took place. As the Pass was close to the Scene of Battle, it encreas’d the Confusion when an impetuous Enemy poured down upon them and broke their Ranks.

The unfortunate Event might have been prevented in two ways. He might have pass’d the River Gary immediately on leaving the Defile, when He could have drawn up his Army on a Rising Ground with the River


in their Front, and so render’d the attack of the Highlanders, who depended on their broad swords, useless and dangerous: by keeping them for a long time expose to a galling and destructive Musquetry, in which his Men must have been superior, as more steady and practiced.

The other Mode was to have maintaind a running Battle on the same Plain where the Struggle took place, and in the Course of 2 Miles’ March He would have arriv’d on a level Ground, with sufficient space for 50,000 men to act. This was the last of the great Actions perform’d by the Highlanders, as Dundee is the last of those Heroes whose memory they cherish with a fond and superstitious Veneration.


Tradition has here conferr’d on one man at least a local Immortality. His Name was Donald Gorme: it appears that He was a Man of great bodily Strength, as well as of Courage: during the Flight of McKay’s Men across the River He planted himself in the place where there was the greatest Press, and was observ’d to cut down 13 Men with his Claymore: but a Horseman from the opposite side who had recover’d from his Pannic took a fatal aim at Him, and shot him dead.

August 25th. Walked to Dalnacardoc
26th. To Dalwhinie by the Glen of Dramoochquhar.
27th. To Fort Augustus over the tremendous Mountain of Corriaarack, and crossing my Native River the Spey at Garviemore. These 3 Stages and particularly


the last are over a wild and barbarous Country: the Road from Dalwhinie to F. Augustus is shocking.

The Fort is in a beautiful situation at one end of the Loch Ness: the Garrisoning of it is now a mere Formality

August 28. Walk’d to the Fall of Fyers the greatest in Scotland. The whole Body of the River Fechloyn is confin’d at the Top between two Rocks, forming a very narrow Passage for the Water, which is precipitated from this Place to an amazing Depthxviii below, and enlarging it’s Dimensions at it descends; until it is plunged and swallow’s up in a deep Gulf, the water of which is so infuriated, and throws up such Volumes of spray, that it’s surface cannot be seen.


As far as I could judge by the Eye it was double the Height of the three Columns that compose the Fall at Stone-Byers.

This Night I slept at a miserable Hut on a Bed of Straw and Pillow of Fern, with a Coarse Blanket under me, and two by way of Cover: I could in the Morning see Parts of the Landscape through many a cranny in the walls, and there was abundance of Light from above. It was however the ordinary Repose of a Celtick Beauty, Daughter of the woman of the House, who probably was better accommodated than thousands of her Countrywomen. Fatigue like Virtue is its Reward for I never slept sounder.

August 29. Walked to Inverness along the Loch, which was uniformly grand: the Road in general good, and semingly [sic]


made with prodigious Difficulty, running over solid Rock for a great way, blown and levell’d on purpose. — Arrived in Inverness.

This Place may be stiled the Capital of the Highlands as it takes the lead of every other in this District of the Country in Population, in Trade and in Fashion. The Number and Burden of the Shipping in the Harbour did not seem to indicate any considerable Commerce, and I believe the chief Article of Export if Salmon of which they send a great Quantity to England and Foreign Countries

The Country around Inverness is beautiful and fertile; they were going on briskly with their Harvest at this time


and had gotten the start of their Southern Neighbours by a Fortnight. This superior Earliness of the Harvest is owing to their dry Situation and Proximity to the Sea. — The Town itself is neither large, nor well built, nor very clean owing to it’s being in a low Situation. There is a singular Hill called the Tomanewry which is a great ornament to it’s Neighbourhood. It is completely detached from any other Eminence, is cover’d with a beautiful Wood, and exactly resembles a Ship’s Hull with the Keel uppermost. Between Ft. augustus and this Place I saw a Hill not a little resembling the Rock of Dunbarton, much of the same size and like it completely insulated.


The Castle of Inverness is now completely ruined, and it’s Fate was rather singular; for it did not perish by a gradual decay, but fell by the Effect of a Frost in one enormous Mass. in it Duncan King of Scots was murder’d by the Usurper Mc.Beth, an Event immortalized in one of the most exalted Productions of Human Genius.

As this place is well calculated as a Resort for Education to the Young Highland Gentry, an Academy has lately been endow’d here by Subscription, where the same mode of Education is pursued which prevails in the Scotch Colleges. I should regard the Man who would found a College in this Remote Corner of the United Kingdoms as entitled to the Veneration and Gratitude of Scotland,


and an essential Benefactor to the whole Island.

Augt. 31st. Left Inverness on my Route to Fort George, passing over a most dreary Region of Silence, Barrenness and Horror. About 4 Miles from the Fort I met with a Curiosity the chief perhaps of it’s kind in the Island of Great Britain. It is a Cromleach composed of two Concentric Circles, the exterior of which measured in Diameter 35 of my Paces or 83 feet: the Stones, of which there was a prodigious number, were of incredible size, and must have been brought from a considerable distance, for I could see no Place in the Neighbourhood where it was likely that they were produced.19 Surely we are accustom’d to hold distant Ages in excessive and undeserv’d Contempt; for the


Mechanical Skill required in this Erection must have been very great, & perhaps could not be exceeded in modern times. — It was mention’d to me that in those Places of Scotland where Cromleachs are found the Inhabitants in the Neighbourhood can assign by tradition a Name to every Stone, which is a Designation of it’s particular Purpose or use in the general assemblage: such as the Stone of Sacrifices (which were unquestionably Human): Stone of the Altar &c.

Fort George in which I slept this Night is a beautiful, regular and strong Fortification, and constructed according to the System of Vauban. The Barracks are built in 3 Quadrangles inside of the Fort and under cover, their Roofs


being no higher than the Ramparts, and the Casemates and Magazines are Bombproof. There is a most delightful Walk round the Ramparts.

The 3 Forts along the Lochs were at first intended to repress the disaffected spirit of the Highlanders, by introducing a Military Force into the very Vitals of their Country, and cutting off the Communication between the Northern and Western Clans: but soon after this Scheme was executed, there arose a Man who went far beyond the Views of Vulgar Politicians, and knew that the mind was not to be subdued by external Force.Lord Chatham in the War which He so successfully conducted against France would not allow the martial Disposition of the Highlanders to lie dormant and


useless, but gave Commissions to their Chiefs who accordingly brought their adherents into the Army, and ever since they have been as zealous in the Service of the House of Brunswick as they were formerly in their Devotion to the Stuarts.

On my way to Fort George I view’d the Scene of Battle fought on Culloden Moor on 16th Apl 1764: a Day which annihilated the Glory of one of the most illustrious Families that Europe had ever known, over which Fortune had exercis’d a Capricious and Tyrannical Sway: the Individuals as well as the whole Race having ^alternately enjoy’d her Smiles, and been subject to her Scourge; and as the Morning of their Lives rose with Transcendant Splendor, so it was


generally overtaken by a premature and disastrous Obscurity.ix

It may be safely pronounced that the Issue of that Rebellion was highly beneficial to Scotland. The Mortification of the severe Defeat which they had sustain’d sunk deeply in the Minds of the Highland Clans, and made them regard all further Resistance to the Establish’d Government as desperate and unavailing. An arm’d Force was introduced into their Country and for the first time a standing Army watch’d all their Motions, and render’d any Combination among them impossible. The Legislature had a Pretence, and possess’d the Abiltiy to crush those Allodial Jurisdictions exercised by the Chieftans of the


different Clans, which made every one of them regard it’s own Head as their only Legitimate Ruler; and their Duty to Him often superseded every Obligation of Loyalty and Justice. As soon as this Power was withdrawn ––––– the spirit of Clanship and enthusiastick atttachment to their Hereditary Leaders immediately began to decay: for although the Indigenous Spirit of every Tribe, and it’s separate and exclusive Union together with their general Love of Ancestry still remain’d, yet their Chiefs thus stripp’d of Authority could no longer inspire Terror, the commanding Principle of Political Obedience, and even of affection among Men. This Constitution of Clanship was very inconsistent, or rather
absolutely incompatible with Civil Government, every Part in such a System having irreconcileable [sic] Prejudices, and considering it’s own Interests as totally separated from the General Welfare. It besides nourish’d a martial or rather a ferocious Disposition among the Highlanders, being the source of numberless & immortal Broils, which were continually calling forth their Exertions against each other. But this Disposition became extremely formidable when, as was frequently the case, it was exercised in Rebellion against the Sovereign Power of the Country: it was for centuries the Scourge and Terror of the Government in Scotland, nor can we regard the Highland Clans as forming a united and effective Branch of the Scottish Nation under it’s Old Kings.


Now that these Mountaineers enjoy a Community of Privileges with their Fellow Subjects, and as their Ancient Habits decline they discover every day a greater Aptitude for Civil Government & Society. It makes People of inferior Understanding Smile to observe, that so great a Genius as Lord Kaimes should lament the decay of their Warlike Disposition,21 and consider that part of their Character as most meritorious which for Ages involved themselves and their Country in perpetual Confusion: but they still retain Qualities which constitute them excellent Soldiers, Courage, Obedience, Fidelity and Perseverance.

The Battle which seems for ever ^to have decided their Fate was fought


on an extensive Moor open in all directions for many Miles; a fair Field of Contention where there was neither Advantage to the Victors nor Retreat for the Vanquish’d. It was fought in a manner characteristick of the different Qualities of the two Contending Nations; on the part of the Highlanders with a generous & impetuous Valour, opposed by the other army with a cool and determin’d Bravery.

In this route through the Highlands beginning at Dunbarton & ending at Inverness the Roads are excellent with the Exception of that from Tayndrum to Killin, and from Garviemore to Ft. Augustus, the first 22 the other 18 Miles. These are called


Military Roads, having been executed by the different Regiments stationed in the Country after the Rebellion. The Expence was defray’d out of the Income of the Forfeited Estates and a Sum has been funded, annually producing £5000, at the disposal of Commissioners, for their Repair. They were intended for the wise purpose of facilitating the Intercourse between Remote Country and the other Parts of the Island, and perhaps to make it more accessible in case of Rebellion. How far this Measure may tend to produce an Identity of Language, Manners, and Modes of Thinking between the Highlanders and their Southern Neighbours it is not easy to ascertain: but it certainly will require
a great length of Time, perhaps Ages, for that purpose. It is amazing over what a Tract of Scotland the Gaëlick Language still extends. The Line of Demarcation between the two Tongues seems to begin from St. George, going by Nairn, and then South East 20 Miles West of Elgin and Fochabers thence by Bremar on the River Dee, from thence all along the Western Boundary of Angus Shire, and then in a Straight line to Dunbarton; a Tract equal to two thirds of the whole Extent of Scotland: all to the North and West of this Boundary speak Gaelick.

along this Route we found the People universally attentive, civil, and obliging, with something of a Gentility of Manner


and Behaviour not to be met with in the Lowlands. Indeed from the Borders to Dunbarton they seem’d to possess little of the Character of the North: they were sullen, sulky and uncivil; a character which I am afraid is too just when applied to most of the Southern Scots. From Dunbarton to Inverness by a Route 251 Miles in length I was never once solicited for charity although I met Multitudes of needy Objects. Many of Them who have come a very considerable Distance (sometimes about 2 Miles) to point out the way would not accept of money when offer’d to them; which I believe would rarely occur south of the
Tweed. I have a pleasure in bearing this Testimony to the Character of a Peo^ple who among us are prejudg’d, and look’d on as a race of Savages and Enemies to every Civil Virtue. Whoever can travel in this Country with Indifference has neither Eyes to see, nor a Heart to feel. Great Caution is to be observ’d in taking the Report of the Highlanders and Lowlanders relating to each other: there prevails between them an inveterate & illiberal Antipathy, similar to Protestants and Roman Catholicks in Ireland, nor do I know of any other Parallell in this respect of the three Kingdoms.


September 1st. Walk’d to Forres. It is a neat clean Town, and situated in a Rich and Delightful Country. The View from some Eminences in the Neighbourhood extends over almost the whole Rich and Productive Plain of Murray Shire, the Granary of Scotland, and the finest Corn Country in the Island of Great Britain: we saw a most extensive Range of dry and level Country cover’d with Fields of Wheat, Oats, and Barley and deficient in Nothing by Pasturage which seems to be comparatively trifling.x23 An English Spectator would be very much deceiv’d in estimating the Riches of this fine Province: for altho’ the whole surface of the Soil which is
deep and luxuriant, is cover’d with the most abundant Crops, yet, owing to the want of Hedges and Inclosures as in England where they sometimes disguise a natural Sterility of the Country, the Prospect has a bare and naked Aspect. This View comprehends the Hills of Rossshire, the Entrance of the Famous Bay of Cromarty; the Country in the Neighbourhood of Inverness, and St. George; the Town & Harbour of Findhorn, and the bold Promontory of Brough Head. This last is the Gibraltar of Murray-Shire. As this Part of Scotland was the chief Theatre of the Ravages of the Danes they fortified this Peninsula very strongly on the Landside, and towards the Sea it was naturally impregnable, being
surrounded with deep water with an excellent Harbour that afforded Shelter to the Ships which transported those destructive Hordes of Free-booters. This was always their last refuge in case of Misfortune and Defeat: as they were Masters of the Sea it was impossible for the Scots to cut off their Retreat, or prevent their landing in that way. West of Forres stand the Remains of a Palace of King Duffus.

About ¾ of a Mile E. from Forres there is a singular Curiosity, which has generally attracted the Notice of Travellers, and long employ’d the Conjectures of Historians and Antiquaries. It is a Stone Column of the amazing Height of 23 Feet and an


Experiment having been made some Years ^ago to ascertain the Foundation, they dug to the Depth of 14 Feet finding the Stone still entire, when the Attempt was given up. The Pillar is about a Yard broad, and about 9 Inches in thickness. The Surface towards the North is cover’d with sculpture merely ornamental, without any particular Design. The opposite or South Side seems intended to convey the Historical Design of the Erection. It is divided into 3 Partitions or compartments. The lowest contains on the right hand side some Human Figures, and on the left 3 Lions passant: the 2d. is the most inexplicable: on the right hand are a
24
number of Arm’d Men; on left an equal Number lying as if dead; in the middle Representation of a Tower or Castle with two Figures like Lions attempting to enter it’s Gate: in the middle of the highest Division there stands a supereminent Figure of a larger Size, and seemingly better executed than the Rest in a complete Highland Garb. This circumstance determines me to believe that it is a Scottish, and not a Danish Monument, notwithstanding many Opinions to the contrary. This Part of Scotland was the Scene of such a multitude of interesting Events, that, if we pretend to assign the precise Circumstance which it is intended to
commemorate, we must depend entirely on arbitrary and lawless Conjecture.

On my way to Forres I stopt at Calder, and saw the Castle. In the Inside and Center of the Building there stands the stem of a Thorn Tree, said to be coeval with the Foundation of the Castle; but by what whim it was placed there, is not precisely known. On the Top of this Castle there is a Room to which we ascend by a Ladder over the Roof where Simon Lord Lovat was concealed after the Battle of Culloden.

In one of the Rooms is preserv’d the Bed on which Duncan was murder’d by MacBeth: the Sculpture of it is Rich but artless, and very much in the Stile of that


on the Pillar at Forres: the ornamental part especially, where there were no Figures, was exactly the same in both, nor do I know what Inference to draw from the similarity.

Septr. 3d. Walk’d to Elgin. This Place is but the Shadow of what it was.xi26 The great number of Remains of Ancient Buildings which it contains give it a melancholy Aspect, but sufficiently indicate what it was in the flourishing Days of it’s Wealth and Splendor. It has greatly declined in consequence and Population; for about 40 Years ago it had 6306 Inhabitants, at present it has only 4534. The Country in it’s Neighbourhood is exceedingly rich, and well cultivated.


Here I view’d the Magnificent Ruins of the Cathedral

The Western Front or Grand Entrance consists of two Square Towers, and between these there is a Door with fine cluster’d Gothick Pilasters, supporting a Rich and corresponding Arch. Half way between these Towers and the Eastern End, or Termination of the Chapel, there are two others facing the North and South projecting to a small distance on each side, so as to form a Cross with the Body of the Cathedral, and their Fronts appear to be double of those of the Western Entrance. Beyond these it narrows considerably forming the chancel which is the


most entire Part of the Building: it’s Eastern Extremity has 5 large Windows in the lower part, as many smaller over them, the whole surmounted by a noble and circular one.

Between the middle Towers and the End of the Chancel there is a Projection on each side of a singular kind, which when entire, must have been very grand. One of these is no more, and can only be known to have existed by Analogy from seeing the other, which is in a tolerable State of Preservation. It consists of a straight Part issuing at Right Angles from the Body of the Chancel, and terminating in an Octagon Tower; in the inside of which there is a Masterly Achievement


of Gothick architecture, which is a Massy Dome of Stone centrally supported by a single slender and beautiful Pillar, similar to that which supports the Lobby of Christ Church Hall in Oxford. The Windows and ornaments in the Inside of the Cathedral, and especially the Chapel are of the most beautiful, chaste and at the same ^time fanciful Designs; and the trifling Remains of the Arches are just sufficient to inform us what they have been.

The View of these Ruins as associated with a Retrospect of the Past presents one of the most afflicting spectacles. This magnificent Temple, dedicated to Religion, the Boast of a Kingdom, and the Wonder of Ages, lies now a most deplorable


Wreck. — The two Towers on the West Entrance are so loose, broken and disjointed that it appears with difficulty they can support themselves, and I believe that a few Shocks of a Cannon Ball would hurl them both in Ruins. On the North side, intervening between the Western Extremity and the Chapel only one solitary Pillar remains. In the Inside huge Masses of the fallen Walls, some of them equal to the Burden of a large Ship lie heap’d on each other with the most ruinous Confusion. The Churchyard is cover’d with Showers of Fragments that have fallen from time to time, some of which have broken through large Grave Stones and buried themselves in the Earth. It appears fast approaching the Verge of Annihilation
and that no Part of it can stand for many Years.

This Cathedral was first built in 1224, but was destroy’d by a Goth named Alexander Lord of Badanoch, I suppose an Ancestor of the present Duke of Gordon. It was rebuilt in 1414. It is 260 Feet in Length by 34.

About 6 Miles from Elgin stand the Ruins of Pluscardine Abbey, which are very grand. it is situated on a small Eminence. The Body of the Building runs North and South, the chapel or church projecting Eastward from it, and terminated on the West Side by a Square Tower. To the North and South a Part of the Main Body of the Building is set off, and joins the Tower, ––––– equal to


the Chapel in Elevation and considerably higher than the other Parts, so that assuming the Tower is the Center It has the appearance of 3 Sides of a Maltese Cross, and forms no bad Effect. The Rest of the Ruins seem to bespeak it formerly to have been a Place of considerable Beauty and Consequence.

About a Mile and a half eastward from Elgin we come to the Beautiful Loch of Speynie, on the Borders of which there stand the massy Remains of a Palace, improperly call’d a Castle, the residence formerly of the Bishops of Murray. The Loch is many Miles in Extent, and is cover’d with Wild Ducks and Geese: and is remarkable for being the Resort


of the Wild Swans which generally come here about the latter End of September to winter on the Lake. In the Neighbourhood some some Parts of the Soil are so excellent, that they appear equal if not superior to that of the Vale of White Horse in Berkshire, supposed to be the finest in England.

Septr. 4th. Pass’d the Spey within Gunshot of the Place, celebrated for two great & similar Events; where Malcolm Kanmore, King of Scotland, cross’d the River to subdue the Rebellious Clans of the North; and where the Duke of Cumberland pass’d in 1746 to a similar Encounter. Close to this Passage stands the Village of Fochabers, built within 10 Years past upon a regular Plan, and very neat. At a small distance stands


the superb Edifice of Gordon Castle with it’s fine Grounds and Romantick Walks. About 4 Miles East of Fochabers at the Mouth of the Spey there is a Dock or Harbour call’d Kingston Port, where shops are built of as large a Size as any in Scotland and entirely of Firs floated down the River from the Forest of Glenmore. There was one upon the stocks at this time of 700. Tons burden. The Forest has been purchas’d by an English Company for a certain Term of Years, and it is calculated that they float down 12,000 Pieces in a Year for sale independant of the Timber employ’d in Ship building.




Walk’d to Aberdeen by Cullen, Portsoy, Bamff [sic], Turreff, Old-Meldrum, Peterhead.

Cullen is a small Place of inconsiderable Population or Trade. A Manufacture of Linen was establish’d and encouraged here by the late Earl of Findlater, but It has never arrived to any Extent.

Banff is pleasantly situated on the Sea Side round a capacious Harbour, and carries on a comparatively considerable Trade. The Country in this Quarter, and especially about Cullen, is pleasant and cultivated.

Turress is a small and mean Place, and Old-Meldrum the most


wretched, to deserve the Name of a Town, which I have seen in the North.

This Part of Aberdeenshire looks bare and miserable; and still more so as we exchange the fertile Plains of Murray for this uncouth and sterile Scene. The Country is by no means deficient in Natural Advantages, the soil appearing to be good and practicable, although much neglected. The Lands and Farms are laid out in a slovenly manner, and betray in the Owners a Want of Capital or Encouragement; or shameful Negligence and Ignorance of Agriculture; or perhaps all these


Disadvantages united

Aberdeen in point of Size, Population and Trade is rank’d as the third City in Scotland. It is divided into 2 Parts the Old and New Town which taken together extend from the mouth of River Don on the North to that of the Dee on the South about 2 Miles Distance, and within this compass there are calculated to be 30,000 Inhabitants. The Town stands on a Hill which slopes gradually towards the west and terminates suddenly and abruptly [...] on the Eastern side, on which stand the remains of the Castle.


The Harbour is capacious but somewhat difficult of Access and does not admit Vessels of more than 500 Tones burden.







Journal of the Prince’s Escape after the Battle of Culloden. –––––

16th. April 1746.

Was taken off the Field by Major Kennedy, while the French & scotch Troops Kept the Duke of Cumberland at bay Here He gave Orders for his Army to disperse. 17. Went to Tordarack, 9 miles from Inverness. To Aberardar in McIntosh’s Country 3 Miles. Farlone in Lovat’s Country & thence 1 Mile more to Castlelaige or Gortulaige, where They met Ld. Lovat & drank a few Glasses of Wine. The Persons who accompanied were; Sir Thomas Sheridan; Sir David Murray; Alexander McLeod: John Hay; Edward Burk; Allan McDonald27













Length of the Journey. Miles.




Notes &c:


The Highlanders call Scotland Alpin, whc. signifies a Mountainous Country, and was probably the original Name of the whole Island from which the Romans deriv’d their Albion The Name of that chain of Mountains dividing France and Italy viz: Alps is plainly of Celtick Extraction and synonimous with Alpin. It is probable that the word Scotland was originally Schôtte-land which is tantamount in meaning to Alpin for it is an obsolete German Vocable signifying a Hill. It is not likely according to Ossian McPherson’s Supposition that it is derived from Scuyth a Celtick word signifying a Wanderer, because it is uncommon to incorporate Words of different Languages (Land being undoubtedly Saxon) and because it is unnatural for any People to impose on their Country a Name involving
a stigma or reproach. The Shetland Isles (or Scotland Isles) still retain the old Pronunciation.

Most Names of Places in Scotland are Gaelick Viz:

Grampian Hills: from Grant, Great and Beinn or Bean or Ben a Hill — Benmore is the Great Hill: Ben-lomond, Bare green Hill: Ben-ledy, Holy Hill; Ben-venue, small Hill.

Dun is probably a Heap of Buildings or a Town thus we have Dun-Edin or Edinburgh: Dun-barton: Dun-dee: Dun-fermline &c.

Don signifies a deep River.

Glean or Glen signifies a valley open at both Ends: Strath a Valley through wc. a River runs: Ach (Haugh) an extensive Flat.

Crom is a Circle, Cromleach a Circle of Stones or Druidical Temple: The Expression in Erse “are You going to


Church”? signifies literally “are You going to the stones.”?28 — I imagine that the Devotion of the Druids consisted in Solar Worship: it is the most natural of all superstitions. There is one Relick of it remaining in the Highlands to the present Day called Baaltein which signifies the Fire of Baal or the Sun. It is a ceremony perform’d on the 1st. of May. A number of People assemble and bake a Cake in the open Air which they break into small bits, one of which is blacked: they are put into a Bonnet, and every one draws one by chance, the Person to whom the black Piece falls is obliged to jump 3 times over the Fire but formerly it is probable, was consign’d to that Element as a Sacrifice to their Deity Tantum potuit Religio suadere malorum.29


Aber signifies Mouth: thus Aberdeen means Mouth of the Dee: Abernethy, Abergeldy &c.

Leith signifies Mouth of the Water.

Ross means promontory: Kinross Head of the Promontory: Montrose, Moin-ross, Fenny Promontory.

The Derivation of the Name of Inverary is very curious. It is Ion-ar-as-reidh in the Gaelick. Ion-ar (Inver) worthy of Tillage from Ion-worthy and ar, to Till as-reidh (dh is pronounced as y) Mouth of a Rough River: so that this Word has the very comprehensive signification of “a Fertile Piece of Ground at the Mouth of a Rough River” which gives us a high Idea of the power of Combination in the Erse Language.

Lanark, contracted for Lav-ri-uisg (g is pronounced as K) A Place near Water. Spay River (Spadha, a Long Stride)


in Reference to the Length of that Turbulent Stream. Most of the Names of Rivers in Scotland are Celtick Words simply signifying Water and I believe this to be the case in all Languages.

Morvern a Hilly Country. General Term for the Highlands.

Spaut, Speat or Swelling of a River.

Logie, A Low, flat Country.

Drum, An Eminence, Tayndrum Hill of the Tay.

Tulloch, a small Hill or Knock.

Melrose, pronounced by the Scotch Mullross, a bare Promontory.

Stron, a Nose or Promontory.

Clunee, a Pasture among Woods.

















  • Vol. Pent __ ___ 2
  • Carys Map — 1
  • Scone — 1
  • Murray — 1
  • Gents Tour
  • 1 Scotland delin. 1
  • Roads – – 1
  • Anislye — 1
  • Sketches — 1
  • Nonni — 3
  • Gilpin — 1
  • Map of Scot
  • [...] S
  • Compass
  • Mirror
  • Coloured Glass
  • Brymen 1
  • Memorand 1


Authorial notes

i. In the Eruption of the Solway Moss a Cow-house in which there were 6 Cows was overwhelm’d, 5 of which perish’d. The other remain’d sunk up to the Head for 60 Hours without food. When liberated She ate heartily but shew’d the utmost horror when water was set before Her; until at length time or necessity cured her of this Aversion.
ii. On the 26th. January 1787. the Clyde became suddenly dry above Lanark, and stopp’d the Mills for 2 hours and afterwards flowed on as usual. This curious Phenomenon has happen’d to many other Rivers in Scotland at different times.
iii. the Palace at H.
iv. Glasgow contains by the last Estimate 61,945 Inhabitants or about ¾ of the Population of Edinburgh, to which in the Course of some Years it will probably be superior. It may be called the Capital of the West as Edinburgh is of the East of Scotland.
v. From the Window of the Inn at Arroquhar there is seen at a small Distance a huge bare Rock on the Top of a Mountain called the Cobler, from it’s whimsical and striking Resemblance of a Cobler working at his Stall.
vi. The Fable relating to the Formation of Loch Awe is thus beautifully told by Ossian: (Not publish’d by Mc.Pherson)

Bera the Aged dwelt in the Cave of the
“Rock. She was the Daughter of Griannan
“the Sage: long was the Line of her Fathers
“and She was the last of her Race. Large
“and fertile were her Possessions: Her’s the
“beautiful Vales below, and her’d the Cattle
“which roam’d on the Hills around. To
Bera was intrusted the Charge of that
“aweful Spring which by the Appointment
“of Fate was to prove so fatal to the In-
“-heritance of her Fathers, and to her
“Fathers’ Race.
“Before the Sun should withdraw his
“Beams She was to cover the Spring
“with a Stone on which sacred and mys-
“-terious Characters were written. One
“Night this was forgotten by the un-
“-happy Bera. Overcome with the Heat
“and Chace of the day, She was seized
“with Sleep before the usual time of
“Rest. The confin’d Waters of Moun-
“-tains burst forth into the Plains be-
“-low, and cover’d that large Expanse
“now Known by the Name of the Lake
“of Aw. The third morning Bera
“awak’d from her sleep. She went to
“remove the Stone from the spring
“but behold no Stone was there. She
“look’d to the Inheritance of her Tribe
“She shriek’d! The Mountain shook
“from it’s base! Her Spirit retired to the
“Ghosts of her Fathers in their light and
“airy Halls.

The Mountain mention’d here is Ben Cruachan. It is 1130 Yards above the level of the Sea and 20 Miles in Circumference the Loch is 30 Miles long and ¾ broad: it is 36 Yards above the level of the Sea. The History of Fraochyn, the Hesperides of Scotland is given by the same Poet:

“The fair Mego longed for the delicious
“Fruit of the Isle guarded by a
“a dreadful Serpent. Fraoch who long
“had loved the Maid goes to gather
“the Fruit. By the rustling of the
“Leaves the Serpent was awaked from
“his sleep: he attack’d the Hero, who
“perish’d in the Conflict. The Mon-
“-ster was also destroy’d: Mego did
“not long survive the Death of her
“Lover.”


vii. On the 12.th Septr. 1784 at 9 O Clock in the Morning Loch Tay suddenly left the East End 300 Feet dry; it roll’d on 300 Feet farther, and met another wave rushing in a Contrary Direction. The Collision rais’d them to the Height of 6 Feet: the whole Body then took a compound or lateral Direction Southward, and went 4 Feet beyond the highest Watermark. — It ebb’d and flow’d every 7 Minutes for 2 Hours until it recover’d it’s Station.
viii. (x 200 feet.)
ix. After the Battle of Culloden the defeated Prince was guarded by a Highlander of the Name of McKian (or Kennedy). This Man’s Conduct affords a most illustrious Example of Highland Courage and Fidelity. He expos’d his Life in every shape to maintain Him in his concealment: He stole plunder’d and robb’d for this pupose, when He Knew that by betraying his trust He could gain £30,000. At last after He had effected his Escape, being impell’d by the direst Necessity, in order to maintain his Family, He stole a Cow for which He was tried and hang’d at Inverness. George the IId. who could prize this Man’s Qualities. although an Enemy, declared if He had known the Circumstances sooner He would have placed Him beyond the Reach of Poverty. Before his Execution He made a Declaration which seems to be equal to any thing ever utter’d by a dying Hero or Philosopher in Ancient or Modern Times. He took off his Bonnet, and said He thank’d God that


x. Many Years ago the Estate of Culbane extending many miles along the Sea Coast from Findhorn to Nairn was completely overwhelm’d with Sand by a Tempest in the Sea.
xi. There are various Conjectures concerning the Derivation of Elgin. The most probable seems to be that it was named after Helgey General of Sigurd King of Norway who conquer’d Murrayshire in 927. and is said to have built a Town in the Southern Part of it. It was anciently written Helgeyn or Helgun.

Editorial notes

1. James Macpherson, Fingal, an ancient epic poem, in six books: together with several other poems, composed by Ossian the son of Fingal (London: 1762), p.127.
3. This account of the eruption of the Solway Moss appears to be based on that given by Thomas Pennant in A tour in Scotland 1772, part I (1774), pp.75-76. Pennant gives the year of the eruption as that previous to his tour: 1771.
7. John Milton, Paradise Lost
8. Possibly a mistranslation of the Island's Gaelic name Inchcailleach (the island of the old women) — a reference to a community of nuns supposed to have inhabited the island.
9. There is no river called Alloa — the author may be referring to the River Forth or the River Teith, both of which flow east from the base of Ben Lomond.
10. John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book I, ll.180-81.
13. This account of the formation of Loch Awe matches verbatim that given by John Lettice in Letters on a Tour Through Varous Parts of Scotland, in the Year 1792, (London: 1794), pp.256-257. Lettice attributes this rendition of the legend to Joseph MacIntyre, minister of Glenorchy. The Hesperidean tale of Fraoch Eilean given subsequently is similar to that found in Thomas Pennant, A tour in Scotland 1769 (1771), p.188. The source for both may be John Smith's English translation in The Death of Artho and the Death of Fraoch. Two Ancient Poems, Translated from the Galic. (Glasgow: 1769).
14. James MacPherson, Fingal, An Ancient Epic Poem, (London: 1762) p.132.
15. Tacitus, Germania, XX. In The Agricola and Germania of Tacitus, trans. by K.B. Townshend (London: Methuen, 1894), the entire sentence is translated as: 'In every household the naked, dirty children develop the mighty limbs and frames that we see with so much admiration.'
17. Possibly the stone circle at Croft Moraig between Taymouth and Aberfeldy
19. Possibly a description of the stone circles and chambered cairns at Balnuaran Of Clava, near Fort George.
21. Probably a reference to Kames's Sketches of the History of Man, Volume , p..
23. The 'inundation' of coastal land by sand dunes was noted by travellers as a cause for environmental concern. Thomas Pennant describes the appearance of this phenomenon at Findhorn in A tour in Scotland 1769 (1771), pp.131-32.
24. An engraving of the Pillar of Forres with a maid milking a cow and the town in the distance is pasted into the journal here with the print partly visible through the verso-side of the folio it is attached to. The publication from which the image has been taken has not been identified. The printed title of the image is ‘FORRES’; below the image are the names of the artist and engraver: ‘A. Grant del.’ and ‘F.Cary.Sculp’.
26. For a similar etymology of Elgin see Sir John Sinclair's Statistical Account of Scotland 21 vols (Edinburgh: 1791-1799), v, p.2.
27. This appears to be a precis of A Plain, Authentic and Faithful Narrative of the Passages of the Young Chevalier &c. (London: 1750).
28. The source for this translation is probably Pennant A tour in Scotland 1769 (1771), p.188, or Lachlan Shaw, The History of the Province of Moray (Edinburgh: 1775), p.230.
29. Lucretius, De Rerum NaturaI, l.101. Translated as 'So great the power religion had for evil', in Lucretius, On the Nature of the Universe, trans. by Ronald Melville (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997).